An attempt is made to enumerate the Kodagu (Coorg) district birds observed during last one and half decades, published articles, community based nature discussion groups in electronic media and the field guide ‘Feathered Jewels of Coorg’. Kodagu is part of Western Ghat (one among 34 bio-diversity hotspot), situated in south-west of Karnataka with varied vegetation from Scrub to Evergreen. Birds’ diversity account in Brahmagiri- Talakaveri- Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuaries and part of Nagarhole National Park is inclusive.
The avifauna of the region has been reported since 1883 (Davison) followed by 1929 -1957 (Betts). Davison reports chiefly on Ootachmund (Nilgiri) and Wynaad, least on Mysore and region. Davison describes 27 species from Brahmagiri ranges adjoining Waynad and Betts, 279 species from entire Kodagu. Bird survey of Travancore, Cochin (1934-38) and Mysore (1942-43) states are carried out by Ali & Whistler excluding British ruled Malabar, and Canara provinces in Indian Western Ghat. Betts (1951) pronounces that his paper is intended to be a commentary on the bird survey reports carried out in Indians ruled States by Salim Ali. Till release of field guide by Dr Narasimhan (2004), for more than half a century absence of bird information is conspicuous. An attempt is made here to enlist and compare the bird species encountered during our visits, and from published articles, community based nature discussion groups like ‘bngbirds’ and ‘indianaturewatch’ in electronic media.
Bird-diversity of Nagarhole National Park is described by Andheria (1999), Andheria (2002), Krupakar Senani (2000), Neginhal (1999), Ramakantha (2009), Ramesh (2005), Sarath (2000), and Shymal (2005). Since Nagarhole is carved out of both the Kodagu and Mysore districts, birds sighted specifically on Kodagu region of National Park is only accounted.
In Betts (1929) words – Coorg is an extension of the ‘Malnad’ of Mysore State, with the exception of a very small area at the foot of the Western Ghats, which is typical Malabar Tropical rain Forest and the east a tract of dry country in the Fraserpet (Kushalnagar) resembling the adjacent Mysore ‘Maidan’. But it is more than that, a dense forest land on steep hills (Kudu malenadu) and a country of millions of Hills (Anon 1993). The district is spread between 11°56’and 12° 52’ North Latitude and 75° 22’ and 76° 12’ East Longitude. is situated in south-west Karnataka, comprising of Virajpet, Mercara and Somwarpet taluks spread over 4102 Sq. Km with a population of 5.54 Lakh (2011). Total forest cover is 1346 Sq. Km, plantations in 1101 Sq Km, and Paddy is grown in 346 Sq Km. Around 1214 forest patches are assigned and protected as Devarakaadu for worshipping various deities in entire Kodagu since time memorial proves locals fondness towards nature.
Fig: Evergreen canopy Fig: Forest valley
Fig: Hill ranges as viewed from Brahmagiri(Talakaveri) Fig: Montane Grassland
The district is spread over 96 Km from north (River Hemavathi) to south (Brahmagiri Hill), 60 Km from east (Kushalnagar) to west (Sampaje). A Western Ghat main range is around 100 Km from south, Brahmagiri hill to north-west, Pushpagiri hill. Several ridges exist parallel to main range. Notable high peaks are Choma male (1610 m), Thadiyandamol (1750 m), Madakana motte (1150 m), Brahmagiri (1360 m), Kote betta (1650 m) and Pushpagiri (1710 m).
‘Two centuries ago the district was teeming with forests and as a result Kodagu was like a cold storage, during major part of the year’ – an official report of Tipu Sultan’s regime ends with, “God protect us from the winter and rainy seasons”. The present climate is cool, equable and pleasant. The year is divided into four seasons. Winter lasts from January to February and characterised by clear skies, low humidity and agreeable temperature. Summer lasts from March to May with intermittent showers and rising temperature is its speciality. Kodagu experiences south-west monsoon rains from June to September and north-east monsoon rains from October to December (Anon 1993).
Of the 14 heavy rainfall stations in India, with annual rainfall of more than 5000 mm, four are in Karnataka. Of these, except Agumbe in Shimoga district, the remaining three places – Bhagamandala (6032 mm), Pullingoth (5941 mm) and Makutta (5054 mm) are in the district. But, now the average annual rainfall during the last couple of years is 2800 mm. The annual rainfall ranges from 4000-8000 mm over the Western Ghats, decreasing eastwards to about 2000 mm in the eastern edge of the region.
Fig: Montane Grassland tranformed into Belur Golf club during British era
Physio-graphically, the region in which the districts are situated may be classified as partly maidan (plains) and mainly malnad (hilly). The largest river in district is Cauvery and its numerous tributaries, Hemavathi, Lakshmanathirtha, Kakkabbe and Suvarnavati flows eastwardly and the only westward river is Barapole.
Fig: Nature trail in Doddakallali betta Fig: Paddyfields, Plantations and Forest
Fig: Panoramic view from Cheriyakundu in the month of August Fig: Perambadi lake
The vegetation is described as Scrub (Hunise katte, Kalla halla), Moist deciduous (Murkal, Nagarhole, Ponnampet, Somvarpet, Shanivar santhe, lower parts of Karike and Sampaje hills), Evergreen and semi-evergreen (Irpu, Virjpet, Votekolli, Sollekolli, Bhagamandala, Talakaveri, Madikeri, upper Ghats of Sampaje, Kakkabbe, Tadiyandamol, Heggademane, Shantalli, Kundalli and portion of Pushpagiri), and Shola and grassland (Brahmagiri, Madikeri, Pushpagiri, Tadiyandamol and Talakaveri). Taxonomic details on 1332 species spread over 717 genera and 160 families have been documented. Besides, 163 cultivated species inclusive 747 medicinal taxa used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicines have also been recorded here (Keshava murthy and Yoganarasimhan 1990).
Fig: Riverine vegetation Fig: Tropical Montane grassland and shola forest
Fig: Mallalli falls Fig: View of Pushpagiri surrounded forest
Bird observation was conducted using visual census techniques along the locations and routes in varied vegetation and mixed combination. In additions, authenticated sighting records and published elsewhere, related to present study area have been incorporated.
Valuable contribution by S/s. Bishan Monnappa, Balamahesh P, Kiran Poonacha, Sunil Sachi MJ, Kiran Dikshit, Suresh Rathod, Bopanna Pattada, Amit Patil, Bharath VN and others, is made this checklist possible.
Birds list is prepared from the articles of S/s Abdulali H, Ambedkar VC, Bates W, Betts FN, Cariappa KC, Davison W, Nanda BC, Pai AR, Singh B, Subramanya S, Thejasi S, Unnithan Saraswathy, Peeyush Sekhsaria, Bopanna and others.
Reports from S/s Subramanya S, Krishna MB, Karthikeyan S, Shyamal L, Dr Narasimhan SV, Mike Prince, Dipu K, Ullas S, Praveen J, Swamy NR, Rajpal Navalkar, Dilan Mandanna, Kiran Poonacha, Sangeetha Kadur, Srikantha Rao, Niveditha, Peeyush Sekhana, and Bopanna Pattada are made use to prepare separate bird list with 178 species, under the heading ‘bngbirds’.
Participants are, Sadananda KB, Dr Narasimhan SV, Tejaswi S, Kishendas, Mohankumar M, Sampath Kumar K, Yashaswi S, Girija T, Sheshgiri BR, Deapesh Misra, Pradeep NN, Sri Hari Shastry, Sharath A, Suresh, Sahana M, Tanuja DH, Anagha S, Manasa, Gautama, Sarawana, Raja and Hemanth TT
And finally, birds appeared in Dr S V Narasimhan field guide ‘Feathered Jewels of Coorg’ is listed and compared with four lists prepared as above to catalogue the birds of Kodagu.
Totally 355 bird species belonging to 67 families have been recorded, comprising of 275 Residents, 70 winter visitors, and 10 local migrants. It is recorded that 29% of 1225 species of Indian avifaunal diversity (Islam & Rahmani 2005) and 66% of entire Karnataka state (Praveen 2010, among listed 537 species) occurs in Kodagu. About 500 species of birds have been reported from the entire Western Ghats, including 16 endemic species from different strata of complex -Lowland & Hill forest, Montane forest, Montane Grassland, and Foothill, found nowhere else in the world (Islam 2005). Kodagu, being part of Western Ghat accommodating 355 species and all the 16 endemic birds of the region is note worth.
Population of resident Birds like Grey-headed Starling, Brown Flycatcher, Eurasian Blackbird, Common Kestrel, Cotton Teal, Common Coot, Little Ringed Plover increase many fold in winter after the migratory counterpart join them in winter. Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus is reported from here as early as 1929 (Betts) in Periyapattana, bordering Kodagu and still it continues, however their population increases marginally during Monsoon.
Among 275 resident species recorded, 85 species are found only in western part of Kodagu, and conspicuously absent in Kodagu eastern plains. Regular winter visitors list is impressive with 70 species, among them 19 are considered as vagrants since appeared in single list. Kodagu being part of central-Asian Flyway hosts many migratory birds in good numbers. One of the rare migratory unusual to hilly terrains, Since water bodies are least, migratory waterfowl presence is minimal, however, terrestrial and arboreal migrants list is elaborative.
Recent photograph (317526) of Lesser Florican Sypheotides inidca in (2012) by Bishan Monnappa confirms that the bird still exists in other part of Karnataka, apart from recent sighting from Hesaraghatta, Bangalore (Raghavendra 2012). Nearest location from where the Florican recorded is Mysore way back in 1940’s (Phythian-Adams 1940).
Demoiselle Crane Grus virgo in flight is reported by Nanda and validated by Singh (1997) near Madikeri. In Mysore area, congregation of Demoiselle Cranes Grus virgo in large numbers at Kapila river near Nanjanagudu, Yelandur Tanks, and at confluence of River Kapila, Cauvery at T.Narasipura was a common feature during winter; and were flying over Mysore city regularly (Phythian-Adams 1940). In recent days few individual Demoiselle Cranes were recorded twice at Maddur kere (Yelandur) and KRS backwaters (Shivaprakash 2002).
Plantations include Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Orange, Pepper and Cardamom. These plantations excluding Tea and Rubber are grown under shade (Coffee) or amid mixed vegetation (Orange, Pepper and Cardamom). These plantations are semi-forests that together with protected forests support varied bird species. Off late, exotic species trees are being introduced in place of local species in plantations is the point if worry (Narasimhan, 2004; Col Muthanna CP, publishers note)
During rainy days few Hanging Parrot Loriculus vernalis have been observed in secondary forests in Mysore plains from nearby forests of western Ghat. A few Plum-headed parakeets Psitacula cyanocephala penetrate deep into plains of Mysore city outskirts during rainy season. Brown-backed Needletail Hirundapus giganteus, White-rumped Needletail Zoonavena sylvatica, Crested Tree-Swift Hemiprocne coronate and Indian Swiftlet Collocalia unicolor have been sighted in hilly areas like Bettadabeedu, Malleswara Gudda, Chikkadevammana betta during monsoon and post monsoon. Incidentally these hillocks are situated 5-25 Km away from the forests of Nagarahole. Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis and Changeable Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus have been sighted several times all seasons at different locations like Varakodu RF & Malleswara Gudda RF, Chamundi RF & Melkote Wild Life Sanctuary respectively. Pompadour Green-Pigeon Treron pompadora was sighted near Narasambudhi Lake near Nanjanagudu far away from known habitat in mid-summer. Activity of visiting may be co-related with Green Pigeons visiting the swamps in hot weather mentioned by Phythian-Adams (1943) & Frend (1947).
Some interesting observations subsequent to compilation of five different checklists are listed below;
A. Consolidated bird list amounts to 355 species from different sources.
B. Appearance of different species from five diverse checklists -
C. Evaluation of birds recorded from different sources resulted in additions to existing Field guide (*marked are photographed and number in parenthesis indicates species listing, out of five diverse lists).
1. Jerdon’s Baza (2)*
2. Common Buzzard (2)
3. Booted Eagle (2)
4. Montagu's Harrier (1)
5. Pied Harrier (1)
6. Blue-breasted Quail (1)
7. Demoiselle Crane (1)
8. Slaty-legged Crake (1)
9. Spotted Crake (1)
10. Ruddy-breasted Crake (2)*
11. Watercock (1)*
12. Purple Moorhen (2)
13. Common Moorhen (1)
14. Lesser Florican (1)*
15. Pheasant-tailed Jacana (1)
16. Greater Painted-Snipe (1)
17. Yellow-wattled Lapwing
18. Little Ringed Plover (2)*
19. Common Snipe (2)*
20. Pintail Snipe (2)*
21. Eurasian Woodcock (1)
22. Black-winged Stilt (1)
23. Stone-Curlew (1)
24. Great Stone-plover (1)
25. Black-bellied Tern (1)
26. Red-winged Crested Cuckoo (1)
27. Large Hawk-cuckoo (1)
28. Lesser Cuckoo (3)*
29. Lesser Coucal (3)*
30. Brown Wood-Owl (2)*
31. Short-eared Owl (1)
32. Black-capped Kingfisher (2)
33. Jerdon's Bush-Lark (1)
34. Eurasian Crag-Martin (1)
35. Black-naped Oriole (3)*
36. Yellow-throated Bulbul (1)
37. Pale Grasshopper-Warbler (1)
38. Indian Great Reed-Warbler (2)
39. Large-billed Leaf-Warbler (2)
40. Western Crowned Warbler (2)
41. Bluethroat (1)
42. Blyth's Pipit (2)
43. Brown Rock Pipit (2)
44. Streaked Weaver (1)
45. Red Munia (2)*
D. Following birds described in Field guide are to be sighted by birders / photographers, or not reported in any media.
1. Indian Shag
2. Malayan Night Heron
3. Glossy Ibis
4. Eurasian Spoonbill
E. On assessment of possible/doubtful sightings few species are included in the consolidated list and some not, observers and the bird list follows. Just after one more sighting these can be listed as birds of Kodagu;
1. Ceylone Ruddy Crake Amaurornis fuscus zeylonicus (Nanda BC)
2. Red-faced Malkhoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus (Nanda BC)
3. House Martin Delichon urbica (Sightings of Mohan kumar M, Gowtham, Sharawan & Raja)
4. Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca (As above )
5. Common Chiff chaff Phylloscopus collybita (As above)
6. Humes’ Warbler Phylloscous humei (As above)
7. Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula (As above)
8. White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (As above)
9. Silver-backed Needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis –though, Grimmett (1999) agrees with occurrence in Western Ghats not included (Mike Prince & Shivaprakash)
10. Sighting of Pied Thrush Zootheris dauma(Betts) in Nilgiris is only mentioned, hence not included
11. Un-described/doubtful Mountain Hawk Eagle Spizaetus nipalensis , Eurasian Griffon Gyps fulvus (Betts) not included
12. Betts reports about sighting of several species of Leaf Warblers Phylloscopus spp (Betts) in good numbers, since species are not mentioned these are not included in sightings list
13. Large Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparveroides and Nilgiri House Swallow Hirundo javanica =tahitica , (Betts) is doubtful/not definitely identified about occurrence, still included
14. Long-billed Vultur Gyps indicus, Brown Hawk-Owl Ninox scutulata, Brown Wood-Owl Strix leptogrammica, Franklin’s Nightjar Caprimulgus monticolus, Great Pied Hornbill Dichoceros bicornis, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor, Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis, Brown-rock Pipit Anthus similis, Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus, Broad-billed Roller Eurystomus orientalis, Nilgiri Wood-Pigeon Columba elphinstonii & Scaly Thrush Zoothria dauma though unsighted confident of presence (Betts), hence included
15. Though not described, because a commoner Changeable Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus and Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica (Betts) included
16. Mentions (Betts) about distinctive resident and migratory Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
F. Interesting notes on observed birds and habitat
· I succeeded in the chief object of my journey, which was to procure Trochalopterum jerdoni. I got twelve fine specimens, and though I did not procure them actually in the same locality as Dr. Jerdon did, I got them on the Bramagherries (Brahmagiri), a range of hills separating Coorg from the Wynaad– Davison, W. 1883
· Waterfowl make a small showing in the list of Coorg birds owing to lack of conditions to suit them in the hilly country which comprises most of the area of this little province. Natural lakes there are none and the artificial tanks which are such a feature of the landscape in the plains are few and small and confined to the narrow strip of dry, low-lying country between the hills and the river Cauvery which here forms the Mysore boundary- Betts, F.N. 1938
· The birds of Coorg paper is intended to be a commentary on the reports of the surveys carried out in Mysore and Travancore and Cochin Sates by Salim Ali and complementary to them. It is the result of ten years field work in which I collected eggs but no skins, and amassed a quantity of notes on habits and distribution which I hope will help to fill out the framework provided by the Surveys, along with which it is intended to be read –Betts, F.N. 1951
· Malabar Whistling Thrush is not an exclusively resident bird. A ringed bird from Mahabaleswara, Satara, Maharastra, has been recorded in Chinbu village, Sampaje at distance of 650 Km – Ambedkar, V.C. 1991
· Sportsman of yore believes that Grey Wagtail and Pintail Snipe arrive and depart Coorg together. Even, Pintail Snipe has name in Kodava language, BANDU-KONEYA (Mud squatter) – Nanda, B.C. 1997.
· Egrets, Pond Herons roosts in tress in and around Napoklu town, breeds in June/July and pressurises Forest department for protection – Cariappa, K.C. 1999.
· Presence of jungle crows in Madikeri is recorded only after 1834, its population increased to such a level that they are attacking even Bonelli’ Eagle & Grey Wagtails - Nanda, B. C. 2003.
· The unique concept of Devarakaadu as bio-buffers on the pretext of worshipping various deities. These Devarakaadu stand proof to the sense of concern for preservation of wildlife among the people of Kodagu – Dr. Narasimhan, S.V. 2004
· Present report (Brhmagiri-Makut & Pushpagiri-Bisale) shows that the Ceylon Frogmouth exists in fairly large numbers (32nos) in some of the localities of its distributional range. Since the bird is nocturnal and found mostly in the rainforest of the Western Ghats, the attention paid to the study of this bird is negligible- Kumar, H.N 2006
interest were the needletails. On one evening I briefly saw
Among 465 conservation priority locations identified as Important Bird Areas (IBA) spread throughout India, 37 sites are located in Karnataka (Islam & Rahmani 2005). Twelve among them is located in nearby Mandya, Mysore and Chamaraja Nagar Districts. Kodagu has its own four IBAs (IBA code number is given in paranthesis).
· Bramhagiri Wildlife Sanctuary (IN-KA-08) - Sanctuary is located on Karnataka – Keral border adjoins Aralam Weldlife Sanctuary (IN-KL-02) in Kerala, separated from Nagarhole National Park by narrow strip of coffee estates and from Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary by a Evergreen Forest corridor and plantations. Evergreen Forest, montane shoala and grassland vegetation dominates the sanctuary. Twelve out of sixteen Western Ghat bird endemics have been recorded here. Identified 1, 2 & 4 bird species respectively in critically endangered, vulnerable and near threatened category.
· Nagarhole National Park (IN-KA-25) is named after a small river, is located within the districts of Mysore and Kodagu bordering Kerala state. Moist deciduous and Dry deciduous vegetation constitutes most of the park. Park is flanked by Bandipur National Park (IN-KA-03) in Southeast and Kerala’s Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary (IN-KL-24) to its southwest. These three protected areas, together with Tamil Nadu’s Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (IN-TN-17) and Kerals’s Silent Valley National Park(IN-KL-20), constitutes the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Four out of sixteen Western Ghat bird endemics have been recorded here. Identified 1, 3 & 4 bird species respectively in critically endangered, vulnerable and near threatened category.
· Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary (IN-KA-28) is part of Western Ghat, consisting mainly of Evergreen, Semi-evergreen and Shola-grassland vegetation. Sanctuary is spread as a single entity along with Bisle-Kukke-Sampaje Reserve Forest. Twelve out of sixteen Western Ghat bird endemics have been recorded here. Identified 1 & 4 bird species respectively in vulnerable and near threatened category.
· Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary (IN-KA-35) is named after Talakaveri, the origin of the Cauvery River which lies on the eastern edge of the sanctuary. Sanctuary is part of Western Ghat, consisting mainly of Evergreen vegetation and Plantations. Thirteen out of sixteen Western Ghat bird endemics have been recorded here. Identified three bird species each in vulnerable and near threatened category.
We are indebted to,
- Dr Narasimhan SV and family for hospitality, immense information and introducing us to productive birding areas of Kodagu
- ‘southasiaornith’ ‘bngbirds’ and ‘indianaturewatch’, without these informative website it wouldn’t have been possible to prepare the present assessment
- Dr Bishan Monnappa for answering some queries
- Sri Rajiv Nanjappa of Titimati, for permitting us to do birding in his coffee plantation
- Sri Mohankumar M, Gowtham, Sarawana & Raja whose observations during research work in Wildlife Sanctuaries of Kodagu helped to expand the ‘Mysorenature’ checklist
- Fellow birders – Vijaylaxmi Rao, Thejaswi S, Yashaswi S, Kishendas KR, & Mohankumar M, Girija T, Sheshgiri BR, Sampathkumar K, Tanuja DH, Sahana M, and Anagha S with whom many nature trails have been made, enthralled and outcome utilised now
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· Phythian-Adams, E. G. 1940. Small game-shooting in Mysore. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 41: 594-603.
· Phythian-Adams, E. G. 1943. Green Pigeons in a swamp. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 44: 122-123.
· Raghavendra, M. 2012. Occurrence of Lesser Florcan Sypheotides indicus in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Indian BIRDS 7(5):140-142.
· Rajaram, M. R.; Rajaram, Mrinalini 2005. Birdwatching in a coffee estate at Coorg. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 45(1): 8–9
· Ramakantha, V. 2009. Predators on the wings. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 49(1): 9
· Santharam. V. 2003. Distribution, ecology and conservation of the White-bellied Woodpecker Dryocopus javensis in the Western Ghats, India. Forktail. 19 (2003): 31-38
· Shivaprakash, A. 2002. Re-occurrence of Demoiselle Crane in Mysore district. Newsletter for Birdwatchers: 42(1):8.
· Subramanya, S. 2001. Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus (Linn.), family Accipitridae, in Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 98(2): 278
· Thejaswi, S. 2005. New sites for the globally threatened Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Jerdon) in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 101(3): 458–461 (2004)
· Unnithan, Saraswathy 2002. A catalogue of the birds in the collection of the Bombay Natural History Society - 39. Ploceinae and Estrildinae. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 98(3): 347–354 (2001)
· Web site: bngbirds: messages: 1141/Krishna MB; 6041/Praveen J; 6152/Lavanya; 8104/Sangeetha Kadur; 9295/Krishna MB; 9933/Shyamal L; 10061/Subramanya S; 10856/Subramanya S & Shyamal L; 10910/Mike Prince; 13953/Shrikanth Rao; 14871/Sangeetha Kadur; 15527/Narashimhan SV; 16425/Kiran Poonacha; 17111/Rajpal Navalkar; 17600/ Mandanna; 17970/Nivedita; 18952/Bopanna Pattada; 19033/ Dipu K; and 19785/Peeyush Sekhsaria.
· Web site: indianaturewatch: Photos: Bishan Monnappa /16290/31194/319510/ 124539/ 219489/ 228014/ 234433/ 236705/238999/ 273566/ 275873/277745/ 277535/281169/281351/ 285143/317892/317526; Amit Patil /302317/ 295840/276586; Siddartha Srihari /292429; Bopanna Pattada /284250; Bharath VN /263317/265063; Kiran Dikshit /17159; Balamahesh P /129762; and Suniel Sachi MJ /204290.
· Wemmer, Chris; Derrickson, Kim C. 1994. Duetting in the Great Horned Owl, Bubo nipalensis Hodgson (Strigiformes: Strigidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 91(1): 141–142
Unable to refer following articles related to Kodagu Birds;
· Betts, F. N. 1952. The breeding seasons of birds in the hills of South India. Ibis. 94(4): 621–628
· Zaveri, Ameet K. 1974. Correspondence. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 14(6): 8–9
Please do visit following sites for nature trail of few Kodagu locations;