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Zoochory

posted Jul 28, 2014, 9:57 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jul 28, 2014, 9:58 AM ]


        About two years ago (2012), I visited Bandipur National Park and spent a couple of days there.  At that time almost all the Bamboos (Bambusa arundianceae) were in full bloom and as a result of gregarious and profuse flowering most of the Bamboo clumps were drying after shedding the grams. This phenomenon is common and well documented.  The grains had fallen to the found in millions.  We were watching the forest floor and we could a see a particular species of ants marching in a straight line from the bamboo clumps to their nest.  Almost all the ants were carrying the grains one grain per ant to their nest.  The grains were intact inside each grain, these were hard and white seed.  Bamboo grains were being transported to the ant nest where they would be stored for a few days.  The soil of the ant nest being fertile would naturally be a safe and secure store room for the grains. 

After being stored there, for a few days, if it rains and if other conditions such as aeration, temperature are favourable, these grains would germinate and grow into new bamboo seedlings and soon there would be a fresh clump of bamboos.  This could be the beginning of a new generation of Bamboos.

This is how new bamboo clumps would be formed.  This is one example of how forest plants are dispersed.  The phenomenon of seed dispersal is carried out by ants in this case, an example of Zoochory (=Entomochory) i.e., dispersal of fruits and seeds with the help of animals and ants to be the specific.   

Author: KB Sadananda

Trees of Sri Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens, Mysore

posted Jul 28, 2014, 9:50 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jul 28, 2014, 9:52 AM ]

   

   

 In short, known as Mysore Zoo, is one of the oldest Zoo’s in the world (established -1892). Located in the middle of Mysore City, spreads over 157 acres accommodating wide variety of 160+ fauna. Vegetation selected and cultivated here has reasons: as part of animal activity, shadow to the animals and visitors, in addition to landscaping. The tree species have been documented for displaying on them for the benefit of visitors. The list goes;

Sl No

Scientific name

Family

Common Name

Kannada Name

1

Acharis sapota

Sapotaceae

Chiku

ಸಪೋಟ

2

Aegle marmelos

 

Rutaceae

Bengal Quince

ಬಿಲ್ವ ಪತ್ರೆ

3

Albizia lebbeck

Mimosaceae

Sizzling Tree

ಬಾಗೆ

4

Albizia saman

Mimosaceae

Rain Tree

ಛತ್ರಿ ಮರ

5

Alstonia scholaris

Apocynaceae

Devil Tree

ಸಪ್ತಪರ್ಣಿ

6

Araucaria cookii

Pinaceae

Christmas tree

ಕ್ರಿಸ್ ಮಸ್ ಮರ

7

Areca nucifera

Arecaceae

Betal-nut

ಅಡಿಕೆ

8

Artocarpus integrifolia

Moraceae

Jackfruit

ಹಲಸು

9

Azadirachta indica

Meliaceae

Maargosa, Neem

ಬೇವು

10

Bauhinia purpurea

Caesalpinaceae

Purple bauhinea

ನೀಲಿ ಮಂದಾರ

11

Bauhinia variegata

Caesalpiniaceae

Variegated Bauhinia

ಬಸವನ ಪಾದ

12

Bombax ceiba

Bombacaceae

Silk Cotton

ಬೂರುಗ

13

Callistemon lanceolatus

Myrtaceae

Bottle brush

ಬಾಟಲ್ ಬ್ರಷ್

14

Carica papaya

Caricaceae

Papaya

ಪಪ್ಪಾಯ, ಪರಂಗಿ

15

Caryota urens

Arecaceae

Fish-tail palm

ಬಗನಿ, ಬೈನೆ

16

Cassia javanica

Caesalpinaceae

Pink cassia/ Java cassia

ಕೆಂಪುಯ ಕ್ಯಾಸ್ಸಿಯ

17

Cassia siamea

Leguminosae

Siam Senna

ಸೀಮೆ ತಂಗಡಿ

18

Cocos nucifera

Arecaceae

Coconut

ತೆಂಗು

19

Couroupita guianensis

Lecythidaceae

Cannon ball Tree

ನಾಗಲಿಂಗ

20

Cycas spp.

Cycadaceae

Sago palm

ಗುಡ್ಡೀಚಲು

21

Dalbergia latifolia

Papilionaceae

Rose wood

ಬೀಟೆ

22

Dalbergia sissoo

Papilionaceae

Sissoo

ಬಿಂದಿ, ಶಿಸ್ಸು

23

Delonix regia

Caesalpinaceae

Gulmohar

ಗುಲ್ ಮೊಹರ್

24

Cassine glauca

Celastraceae

Ceylone tree

ಮೂಕುರ್ಚಿ

25

Ficus benghalensis

Moraceae

Banyan

ಆಲ

26

Ficus drupacea var. pubescens

Moraceae

Mysore fig

ಗೋಣಿ

27

Ficus glomerata

Moraceae

Cluster fig

ಅತ್ತಿ

28

Ficus lyrata

Moraceae

Fiddle Leaf Fig

 

29

Ficus benjamina

Moraceae

Benjamin tree

ಜಾವ ಅತ್ತಿ

30

Ficus religiosa

Moraceae

Peepal

ಅರಳಿ

31

Guazuma tomentosa

Sterculiaceae

West Indian Elm

ಭದ್ರಾಕ್ಷಿ

32

Gmelina arborea

Verbenaceae

Coomb Teak

ಶಿವನೆ

33

Grevillea robusta

Proteaceae

Silver Oak

ಸಿಲ್ವರ್ ಓಕ್

34

Holoptelia integrifolia

Ulmaceae

Indian Elm

ತಪಸೆ

35

Jacaranda mimosifolia

Bignonicaceae

Jacaranda

ಜಕರಾಂಡ

36

Kigelia africana

Bignoniaceae

Sausage Tree

ಸಾಸೇಜ್ ಮರ

37

Madhuca longifolia var. longifolia

Sapotaceae

Mohwa

ಸಣ್ಣ ಇಪ್ಪೆ

38

Mangifera indica

Anacardiaceae

Mango

ಮಾವು

39

Melia composita

Meliaceae

Malabar Neem

ಹೆಬ್ಬೇವು

40

Melletia pinnata

Papilionaceae

Indian Beech

ಹೊಂಗೆ

41

Millingtonia hortensis

Bignoniaceae

Indian Cork Tree

ಆಕಾಶ ಮಲ್ಲಿಗೆ

42

Morinda tintoria

Rubiaceae

Brimstone Tree

ಮಡ್ಡಿ ಮರ

43

Muntingia calabura

Tiliaceae

Singapor Cherry

ಗಸಗಸೆ

44

Peltophorum pterocarpum

Caesalpiniaceae

Copperpod

ಹಳದಿ ಗುಲ್ ಮೋಹರ್

45

Phoenix sylvestris

Arecaceae 

Country date palm

ಈಚಲು

46

Plumeria rubra

Apocynaceae

Pagoda Tree

ದೇವಗಣಿಗಲೆ

47

Polyalthia longifolia

Annoncaceae

Mast tree

ಕಂಬದ ಮರ

48

Acacia ferruginea

Mimosaceae

Shami

ಬನ್ನಿ

49

Putranjiva roxburghii

Putranjivaceae

Putranjiva

ಪುತ್ರಜೀವ

50

Roystonea regia

Arecaceae

Royal Palm

ರಾಜತಾಳೆ

51

Santalum album

Santalaceae

Sandalwood

ಶ್ರೀಗಂಧ

52

Sapindus laurifolius

Sapindaceae

Soapnut berry

ಅಂಟುವಾಳ

53

Saraca asoca

Caesalpiniacea

Sita ashoka

ಸೀತಾ ಅಶೋಕ

54

Spathodea campanulata

Bignoniaceae

African Tulip Tree

ನೀರುಕಾಯಿ ಮರ

55

Swietenia macrophylla

Meliaceae

Mahogany

ಮಹಾಗನಿ

56

Syzygium cumini

Myrtaceae

Jamun

ನೇರಳೆ

57

Tamarindus indica

Leguminosae

Tamarind

ಹುಣಸೆ

58

Tectona grandis

Verbenaceae

Teak

ತೇಗ

59

Terminalia catapa

Combretaceae

Indian almond

ಕಾಡು ಬಾದಾಮಿ

60

Teminalia arjun

Combretaceae

Arjun

ಹೊಳೆ ಮತ್ತಿ

Author:  KB Sadananda

Notes on reproductive biology of parasitic angiosperms

posted Jul 28, 2014, 9:32 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jul 28, 2014, 9:44 AM ]

The families Loranthaceae and viscaceae represent a specialized assemblage of parasiting angiosperms known popularly as Mistletoes or Witches brooms. These groups of plants include genera Dendrophthoe, Macrosolen, Scurrula in the first family and Viscum, Taxillus in the second respectively.    These have taken to a highly specialized mode of life not seen in other parasitic flowering plants.  These plants parasites certain other Angiosperms as partial stem parasites.                       Pic: Scurrula parasitica

These are obligate parasites and in order to lead their normal life they should always have close association with their host plants.  They start their life as tiny seedlings and once they are in contact with their hos the seedlings develop a special type of root which is actually their primary root.  This root very soon grows into a sucking root called haustoria (parasitic roots) which enters the stem of the host plant and establishes contact with the Xylem and Phloem of the host vascular tissue and starts drawing water and nutrient minerals which will be flowing in the host tissue.  The parasite thus draws the valuable water and minerals from the host grows luxuriously and many times it mimics the host in ins growth and habit so well that it will be difficult tell them apart  [Examples: Dendrophthoe falcate on Sapota, Dendrophthoe trigona on Banyan tree].

The parasites produce the usual flowers normal to them. The flowers are pentamerous (having 5 sepals and 5 petals and the usual stamens and ovary).  The petals are all united and have a tubular shape.  They will normally be unopened first.  It was formerly thought that certain nectar loving birds help in the pollination of the flowers by carrying their pollen to flowers of other plants.  However it is now known that the birds do not directly participate in effecting pollination but aid indirectly.  These birds which love to gather nectar from the flowers actually puncture the base of the flower where in nectar would have accumulated around the base of the ovary.  The birds having a long and sharp beak (e.g., Sunbirds) very dextrously puncture and make a hole at this place and draw the nectar).  This act of puncturing actually makes the flower petals open with a force and this force is so violent that the pollen powder of the flower is ejected and falls of the receptive stigma of the ovary of the same flower. Thus the flowers are self pollinated and once the stigma is dusted with the pollen of the same flower.  It will not be receptive to any pollen from other flowers as earlier thought. The pollination naturally leads fertilization and so.  The ovules now start to develop into seeds.  The ovary becomes fruit and gradually ripens into mature fruit whose outer wall becomes the fruit wall and when fully ripe, there will be a single hard seed surrounded by juicy pulp just inside the wall.                  

Different types of birds such a Red-whiskered Bulbul, Barbets and Flowerpeckers instinctively known that the fruits containing the juicy pulp are tasty and so love to eat the fruits.  These birds regularly visit the plants and pick the fruits and eagerly gulp the entire fruits.  However the pulp of fruits is very sticky and when the birds bite the fruit the sticky fruit with it seed become attached the beak and is so firmly stuck to the mouth of the bird that it does not fall off easily.

  Pic:Dendropthoe falcate


The birds with such seeds fly to other locations where the same parasites are abundant.  The birds carrying these seeds feel irritated and try to get rid of the seeds by rubbing their beaks against the rough bark of a new host plant, and so these seeds get transferred to fresh host plants and once the seeds come in contact the bark of host plant start germinating into new parasite seedlings and the seeds soon send their primary roost in the form of haustoria into the host tissue and establishes contact.  So in this way new host plants become infected with the parasite.This is the method (Bird aided) of how the parasiting plants are dispersed. 


Author: KB Sadananda

Lapwings in Mysore University Campus

posted Jul 28, 2014, 9:21 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jul 28, 2014, 9:23 AM ]


     During 1976, sprawling campus of Mysore University campus situated at the outskirts of Mysore city was mosaic of grass land, water-body and woodland. We used to observe varieties of birds, butterflies and vegetation within the campus itself. In the month of May 1976, the grasslands spread around open-auditorium were accommodating many breeding Lapwings (Yellow & Red-wattled). Now this area is a wood-land surrounded on all sides by buildings with hardly any Lapwings. Notes recorded during that period are re-produced here to show how change in habitat affects the dependent species diversity


Pic: Yellow-wattled Lapwing  (PC: MK Vishwanath)

Date

Breeding bird

Total no. of eggs

Color of Egg

Observations

 

4/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1)

1 egg

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -2)

1 egg

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

5/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1)

2 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -2)

2 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

6/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1)

3 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -2)

3  eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

7/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1)

4 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -2)

Only two eggs; one is  missing

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

8/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1)

4 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -2)

3 eggs

Eggs pinkish with blotches

 

 

9/5/1976

To

12/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

13/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

 

Located yet another Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -3 ) with an egg

1 egg

Olive green with blotches

 

 

14/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -3)

2 eggs

Olive green with blotches

 

15/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -3)

3 eggs

Olive green with blotches

 

16/5/1976

 

 

 

Did not observe

17/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -3)

3 eggs

 

 

18/5/1976

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -1 & 2)

Incubating

 

 

 

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (YL -3)

4 eggs

 

 

19/5/1976

 

Found Red-wattled Lapwing (RL-1) incubating

2 eggs

Olive green with blotches, larger than those of YL

 

20/5/1976

YL-1

YL-2

YL-3

RL-1

4 eggs

3 eggs

4 eggs

2 eggs

 

Photographed all of them during 10.30 -11.30 AM.

 

  • When approached YL-3 for photo with Tele-lens, the bird sitting over the eggs got up and walked away. 
  • Next, approached YL-2, the bird sitting over the eggs got up as usual and walked away. But, the partner arrived and sat on the eggs for incubating without bothering my presence. I was so close, had to change the normal lens and photograph the bird.   While I was photographing the bird, the other partner which was standing closely chased away a kite making alarm calls.
  • Then I proceeded to YL-1, the bird sitting over the eggs got up and walked away.
  • Then I proceeded to RL-1 nest and photographed from a distance.

21/5/1976

YL-1

YL-2

YL-3

RL-1

4 eggs

3 eggs

4 eggs

3 eggs

RL had laid one more egg.

With Sri P Krishnakumar (PK)  at 9.00 am.

22/5/1976

  • YL-2 nest –one bird sitting over the eggs continued to sit.

 

 

25/5/1976

 

 

YL-1

YL-2

YL-3

RL-1

 

4 eggs

3 eggs

4 eggs

4 eggs

 

Measured egg sizes:

37.5 X 27.5 mm (avg size)

37.5 X 27.5 mm (average size)

35    X 30 mm (average size)

45    X 35 mm (2 eggs size)

45    X 30 mm (2 eggs size)

 

  • YL-2 allowed me to go nearer for photographing, whereas other Lapwings wouldn’t allow me to go nearer than 30 feet.
  • Spotted two more pairs of YL near the road by the side of open air theater.
  • Also spotted one pair of RL -2 nearby. These were all evidently trying to choose a safe location to lay the eggs.

26/5/1976

  • Observations as usual.

 

27/5/1976

  • 2.15 pm: All birds and eggs intact, incubating and their partners were stationed nearby at a call distance. 

29/5/1976

  • 7.00 pm: all the birds YL-1, 2 & 3 and RL-1 were in their location and were very alert.

30/5/1976

  • No observation.

31/5/1976

  • 6.30 am: at RL-1 found no birds; no eggs; no trace of shells being broken, and cannot explain as to what happened.
  • YL-1,2 & 3 intact and as usual.

1/6/1976

  • No observation.

2/6/1976

  • 8.45 am: no trace of RL-1.
  • To my delight, saw that one of the eggs of YL-2 had hatched.  Two eggs remaining. The chick- soft and fluffy was quiet.  May be it had hatched just a little while ago.  It was attended to by both its parents who ran away on seeing me approached, of course calling alarmingly.
  •  Then excitedly, I proceeded to the nest of YL-1. Lo! Three eggs had hatched and only one egg was remaining.  These three young ones were also quiet, except for one of them which was trying to move out making ungainly steps.  It had opened the eyes while the other two has still unopened eyes.  The parents, who were attending to them, ran away making alarm calls on seeing me.  There was also one Red-wattled Lapwing, which also joined in making the alarm calls.
  • Went back home and brought camera and photographed the young ones, there were about 8 Yellow-wattled Lapwings as well as one Red-wattled Lapwing, which were trying to chase me as also one Kite and two Crows.
  • At the same time one of the chicks of YL-1 hardly able to stand, may be this was the first one to hatch, was trying to walk away from the nest. 
  • Next, I went to see the nest of YL-3, all the four eggs were intact.
  • Went back to office and shared observation with Sri PK.
  • 2.15 pm: returned to the site with Sri PK.
  • There were two chicks and only egg in the nest of YL-2, evidently one egg had hatched between 9.30 am & 2.00 pm.  Could not find even a trace of the egg-shells.
  • At YL-1, saw only two young ones instead of three which I had seen in the morning. Perhaps one of the three chicks had fallen prey to a Crow or a Kite. 

3/6/1976

  • 8.30 am: No trace of the chicks of YL-1. But the parent birds were there making frantic calls as I approached the nesting sight, indicating that the young ones may be somewhere nearby.
  • YL-2, three young ones had left the nesting depression and were crouching and hiding behind small grass that had grown.  Could not make them out easily since they blended with the background. As the parent birds calls loudly the young ones crouched still low. This reaction I had also observed yesterday especially in the nest of YL-1.  Two of the chicks which were trying to walk would immediately crouch and remain still when the parent called.

 

4/6/1976

 

  • 8.30 am: No trace of the chicks.  But the parent birds as well as several others (about 8 birds in all) were calling loudly wherever I went and tried to chase me away.  This indicates that the young ones may be somewhere nearby, went round till 9 am & came back.


Pic: Notes on Lapwings 1976


Author:  KB Sadananda

Courtship and mating behavior in Barbets

posted Jul 28, 2014, 9:10 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jul 28, 2014, 9:10 AM ]

            The observation which I am narrating now is of February 1977 and related to the courtship and mating behavior of Barbets. My bird watching hobby had just begun in the sprawling campus of Mysore University. The campus was better wooded in between the buildings with least amount of human disturbance.

The whole place reverberated with the almost incessant Tuk-Tuk calls as well as Kutruk – Kutruk calls of these two types of barbets. I was keenly observing a Rain tree which was almost bare.  As I was watching a Coppersmith Barbet flew in and sat on the fork of a branch. It appeared to be a juvenile eagerly waiting for the mother who would feed it.  This bird was restlessly shaking its lowered wings as a juvenile would do and very soon there arrived another Coppersmith holding a ripe fig and sat on small twig which evidently served as a perch.  The first bird became more agitated and continued to beat its wings vigorously and at the same time crouched itself and looking at the second bird which had just alighted. Only then it occurred to me that the first bird was a female and not a juvenile.  The second bird was evidently a male Coppersmith which had just arrived with the ripe fig in its beak. Soon the second bird (Male) mated with the receptive female and only after the act was over, it gave the female the fig, as if as a reward for the favour and flew away.

                                                                                               Pic: Coppersmith (PC: CS Kulashekar)

Similarly behavior was observed in White-cheeked Barbet after few days in the same location.  During next four decades of birding similar courtship and mating behavior was observed in all forms of birds with little alterations like, there won’t be parting gift, or will take place on ground in case of terrestrial birds or on water in case of water birds. 

Author: KB Sadananda

A tree that hosted most birds - Acrocarpus fraxinifolius

posted Dec 19, 2013, 7:40 PM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jun 20, 2014, 10:48 PM ]

Recently, during the first week of November, we visited southern part of Kodagu (Coorg) district and spent about three days in a comparatively secluded coffee plantation wherein a different kind of homestay is located. The place is spectacular with a chain of verdant rolling hills. It is also very close to Thadiyandamol, said to be highest peak (1750m, asl) of the district. This area being part of Middle Western ghats and having a heavy annual rainfall is rich in montane evergreen forest having an interesting diversity of plants ranging from mosses, ferns, flowering shrubs to tall trees bedecked with orchids. Naturally the bird life and butterflies is abundant.

The South-western monsoon had just ended and the forest was lush green, with many forest streams gurgling down the slopes making the whole place spectacular ad refreshing. Of course the morning was cool with thick mist blanketing the vegetation. This heralded the arrival of winter, quite soon. The fog would lift slowly at about 9.30 am and sun would appear. And yet, even as early as 6.30 or 7 am, the stillness of the forest sky still dark and chilly, would be pierced with shrill resonating shrieks of bird calls. These birds would wake up early and dart from their roosts in search of food. r bringing the welcome warmth and cheer to birdlife and butterflies.




                Fig: Malabar Parakeet

       

                Fig: Acrocarpus fraxinifolius                                     Fig: Acrocarpus fraxinifolius bark 

  Of all the trees, that thickly covered the hills, one tree drew our attention most by its majesty. It was Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, as species belonging to Caesalpiniaceae. This tree commonly known as Pink Cedar or Shingle tree, and Huntige or Houlige in Kannada and Balanja in Kodava language, is a tall one known to be a native of S. E. Asia, having distribution in India, Myanmar and Java. It is seen in Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu districts in Karnataka. It is a tall tree growing to a height of about 30 -60 m and having a clean bole of nearly 10 m and buttressed base. It stands apart from other trees by its tallness. In India and Africa the tree is planted to provide shade in Coffee plantation. It is not much seen in wild state as it is heavily exploited for its good-quality timber. However in plantations it is often seen in plenty.

Fig: Verditer Flycatcher

Fig: Vernal hanging Parakeet

There were quite a few of them in the area. All of them had shed their leaves and the bare branches had just started bearing dull red flowers in long racemes’, which were barely visible from a distance. However, the birds of different kinds sensing the appearance of flowers saw a bountiful supply of food in the form of nectar, pollen, luscious soft parts etc. They would arrive in groups or individually and attach eagerly. One group of birds would chase the others aggressively and compete for food, with loud shrieks and calls as if they would call their kin or were they thanking the tree for the feast? Thus, the whole tree top was festooned with garland of diverse of calls. The species of birds included- Bulbuls(Red-whiskered Pycnonotus jocosus & Black Hypsipetes nicobariensis), Gold-fronted Chlosopsis Chloropsis aurifrons, Mynas & Starlings (Southern Hill Gracula indica, Chestnut-tailed Sturnus malabaricus, Blyths’ Sturnus blythii), Venal-hanging Parrot Loriculus vernalis, Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis, Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus, Barbet (Malabar Megalaima rubricapilla & White-cheeked M. viridis), Common Woodpecker Dinopium javanense, Leaf-warbler(Bright Phylloscopus nitidus & Dull Green P. trochiloides), Veridter Flycatcher Eumyias thalassina, Drongo(Ashy Dicrurus leucophaeus, Bronze D. aeneus & Racket-tailed D. paradiseus), Sunbird(Loten’s & Small), Velvet-fronted Nuthach Sitta frontalis, Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti, Parakeet(Plum-headed Psittacula cyanocephala & Malabar P. columboides), Orioles (Golden Oriolus oriolus & Black-naped O. chinensis) , Black-lored Tit Parus xanthogenys, and Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos -each having a gala fest.


                                     





                                          


   

                      Fig: Ashy Drongo                                                                                      Fig: Hill Myna 

   Optimal utilization of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, a component among the moist deciduous habitat by generalist (a individual able to use all habitats equally well) and specialist bird species (more skillful at using some compartment) was observed and documented.

Author: Sadananda K B 

Photos: Vijayalaxmi Rao, Sheshagiri BR, Sahana M

Nature related Kannada articles

posted Feb 27, 2012, 7:55 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Apr 11, 2014, 11:18 PM ]


Nature related Kannada articles written by us - aired in Akashavani, Mysore; appeared in Newspapers (Prajavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Andolana) and Weekly magazine (Sudha) are posted here. Articles covers various subjects like trekking, nature watch, birds of Karnataka, house sparrows, environmental education, birds and butterfly migration, weather and  pollution, searching rare birds, tanks and lakes, etc. 

NOTE: Since not everyone have Kannada font in their computer's, these articles have been presented in pdf formats for easy accessibility.                                                               Fig: State Bird of Karnataka: Indian Roller/Blue Jay                        
  1. Gubbiya ithyopari                                                 
  2. Hakki Vikshanege munnudi          
  3. Hasuru Vani                                                           
  4. Kappu biLupu chEkaDi Hakkiyannarasuthaa
  5. Mandya jelleya kere katte nadigalatta ondu nota
  6. Nisarga Adhyayanakke suktha kere - Kukkarahalli                                                            
  7. Nisargadatta Nadige                                                           
  8. Shimsha nadiya tiradalli ondu munjane
  9. Vathavaranadalli vyathyaya                         
  10. Shatamanada nantara kanisikonda haddu
  11. Uttarakannadada charanadalli kanda hakkigalu
  12. Besigeyalli mana taNisuva sasyaraashi
  13. Hakkigalige Ungura
  14. ChittegaLa valase
  15. Lingambudhiya maDilalli
  16. Van Ingen mattu Van Ingen
  17. 2014 hakkigala sameekshe varadi 
  18. Narasambudhi kerege kaayakalpa


... more to be updated.

Some Ornithological observations of Sri K Poornachandra Tejaswi depicted in his literary works

posted Feb 22, 2012, 4:23 AM by Sharath Adavanne   [ updated Jan 10, 2013, 6:17 AM ]


 ‘Birds are part of my life.  They appear in my narration as any other human character.  Similarly human presence could be felt in my birding recounting.  Birds have been portrayed as having intellect and character as they are, in my writings.  I haven’t perceived bird watching as an amateur or ornithologist pursuit.  Nature is always portrayed as main character in my novels and short-stories’. These words of Sri. K Poornachandra Tejaswi, renowned author in Kannada language, a language practiced by some 50 million people, mostly in Southern India, aptly represents his inquisitiveness on birds and nature. 


Unlike many educated Indians, Tejaswi settled in Western Ghats (Chikkamagalur district, Karnataka) in the guise of farming to continue his foremost love - exploration. He was a person of multifaceted interest - Creative writing, Farming, Painting, Music, Photography, Fishing, Technology, Publishing, etc. He eagerly responded to the problems faced by the nature, humans and actively involved in many populist movements.  His father’s (Kuvempu) love of nature, influenced him at an early age, and inspired him to enter into the infinite field of nature. His five decades of nature observations is reflected in most of his popular science books, short stories and novels.  Here is an attempt to compile some rare ones, especially bird related instances, as all are unique in nature and many are recorded nowhere else.

  Fig: Sri K Poornachandra Tejaswi (Center).

COURTSHIP & BREEDING


Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

 Paired male and female Small Blue Kingfishers Alcedo atthis shares the nest building, incubation and rearing activity. While preparing a nest hole, one bird excavates, shifts the mud to midway, the other collects and dumps far away.  Nests are very dirty.  Chicks consume fleshy part of fishes, and bone remains, produce stinking smell in the nest.  The chicks defecate by ejecting out of the nest hole in order to keep the nest clean, however the fish bones are not cleared by parents. The growing chicks are infested with lice and ticks.  On each sortie after providing feed, adults bathe with many dipping in the water to get rid of pests passed on from chicks.  Depending on the direction of fish head in its bill, one can visualize whether the feed is for self or for the brood; fish head facing kingfisher means food for self and away means for the brood.


                                                                                                                    Fig: Small Blue Kingfisher

White-breasted Water-hen Amaurornis phoenicurus


Chicks of White-breasted Water-hen, black in colour emerged from the eggs during parents absence. At that moment, Tejaswi was in hide to photograph the nesting birds.  Not finding their parents nearby, both the chicks uttered a call ‘pick … pick’.  From a distance beyond the water body where nest was located, adult answered the call.  Communication continued for a while.  New born chicks started traveling towards their parent on water surface like a floating flower (true to Precocial(=Nidifugous) nestlings behaviour).

                                              Fig: White-breasted Water-hen

Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus

Nesting of Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus is entirely different from that of other Woodpeckers. The nest constructed by arboreal ant Crematogaster dohmi accommodates the breeding Woodpecker. Crematogasters don’t harm the adults or fledglings. The predatory ants protect the host plant by driving away many pests.  Farmers pick up the nest in dark hours and place it in their kitchen garden to safeguard the vegetable crop from rats and squirrels. Insecticides used in Coffee plantations are harmful to these ants intern affecting Rufous Woodpeckers reproduction.


Woodpeckers

During courtship male Woodpeckers attracts the females by a different chiseling pattern, heard as drumming than customary feeding habit. In music, drummers produce different talas like eka tala, aadi tala, tri tala!, same way Woodpeckers produces rhythm.


FORAGING


Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis & Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis

On introduction of smaller sized fingerlings to a newly constructed small pond within in a farm, very next day, a pair of Small Blue Kingfishers appeared for fishing.  Really it is surprising, how did the kingfisher get the message of fingerlings’ release?  Tejaswi opines that, it is not that we humans observe them, it is other way round, in fact other living beings do study us. In next few days Toads appeared, together with kingfishers they completely cleared off the fingerlings released.  Subsequently, bigger fingerlings were introduced so that they can withstand the assault of natural predators. On the third day a hefty Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis appeared. It caught a fish bigger than its head, smashed and swallowed it. It’s amazing to notice the chain of actions and reactions taking place when one tries to introduce new species, whether local or exotic, to a new area.


Lesser Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

A Lesser Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis can fish in deeper water than a Small Blue Kingfisher that can fish comfortably in very shallow and narrow streams.

                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                    Fig: Stork-billed Kingfisher

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis & White-breasted Water-hen Amaurornis phoenicurus

An attempt was made to convert a marshy area adjoining a stream into paddy field. The moment seeds were sown, it attracted many Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis eagerly devouring all the seeds spread, and hardly very few sprouted.  Consequently, the seedling plot was covered with meshes and succeeded in growing seedling defeating Dove. Then seedlings were transplanted in to the prepared field.  Aquatic weeds’ thriving well on the upper part of the stream is a good breeding ground for many White-breasted Water-hens Amaurornis phoenicurus. Consequently, the transplanted paddy-field was more or less completely devoured by these Water-hens. Paddy cultivation was abandoned for ever in the marshes.

                                                                    Fig: Spotted Dove

Baya weaver bird Ploceus philippinus

Congenial habitat with ever-available food is conducive to all types of population increase.  In the last 4-5 decades, after the construction of Lakkavalli and Gajanur dams in Shimoga district, vast area came under irrigation; and, crops are grown throughout the year.  Prolific increase in Baya weaver bird Ploceus philippinus population could be attributed to the phenomenon.  Sugar cane provided nesting material and Rice, helped to increase the population many fold.


Vernal hanging Parrot Loriculus vernalis

Vernal hanging Parrot Loriculus vernalis are fond of Hibiscus spp buds.  These birds pluck and drop the flowers after sucking nectar and pollen consumed. With in the foliage they walk and forage, but never take to wings while moving within the foliage.


Malabar Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus

A female Malabar Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus without any feathers on its body was found in a hollow cavity of a large fallen tree. Female Hornbills shed their feathers during breeding as they are concealed inside a dark cavity for a minimum 40 days.

Note: Detailed breeding biology is not reported on Malabar Pied Hornbill.  However, on the basis of Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros birostris (Mudappa 2000) has total nesting period of 86 days including post hatching phase of 46 days, it is assumed that Malabar Pied incubates 40 days almost equal to studied bird.

At one stage, he questions himself –all the living beings are most energy efficient, evolved during the evolutionary process spread over millions of years, then why did heavy and large bills (Casques) adorned by Hornbills have not changed?  

Known answer is large bills of Hornbills (Ocyceros, Anthracoceros & Buceros spp in India and many other species of world.) are useful to amplify the calls and effectively communicate in the thick forests. Calls are languages used to perform a variety of functions like establishment and maintenance of territory through advertisement or could be for attracting a male. Hornbills breed in crevices in larger trees. The bills of Hornbill are effective tools used for transferring food to female and chicks during incubation and rearing.

Note: It is believed that this structure acts as a vibrating chamber to make the hornbill's voice louder. The calls made by the bird range from the deep booming sounds they make as they begin foraging to brays, toots, bellows, and cackles. The bill and casque of juvenile birds are underdeveloped, and females often have much smaller casques than males. This may be because males also use their casques to attract mates and display their health and strength to other males. 

                  Fig: Malabar Grey Hornbill


Blue-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni

Blue-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni strikes the combs of social wasps (spp?). An enormous papery comb hanging from trees opens up due to the impact and spills the residents. Disturbed and enraged wasps retaliates the attacking birds. After striking the wasp comb, opportunistic Bee-eaters perch on a branch nearby and gulp down the retaliating wasps.  If retaliators are more in number bee-eaters move slightly away and continue to gulp.  Foraging pattern followed by other three common Bee-eaters found, Small Green, Blue tailed and Chestnut headed (Merops orientalis, M. philippinus, M. leschenaultia) is different; they select a place where wasps and bees are active in search of food and position themselves to predate.


Little Spider Hunter Arachnothera longirostra

Little Spider Hunter Arachnothera longirostra is the only bird that can sip nectar of Banana flowers because of its lengthy curved beak.


SURVIVAL


Lesser Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis & Little Egret Egretta garzetta

A Lesser Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis was trying to fish in the river Hemavathi for almost an hour; but didn’t succeed. It rested on a small heap on the bank facing deep water. A larger fish, like a black shadow was moving towards the water-edge where bird was resting.  Since the observer was on an elevated location above the river, he was able to visualize the happenings. It was a big Ophiocephalus marulius fish (Avalu in Kannada). Predatory and carnivorous Ophiocephalus marulius (Avalu), Wallago attu (Bale) and Haddu fishes (Spp?) are found in rivers. Although the bird was observing the movement of the fish, it didn’t perceive any danger and neglected it. The dorsal fin of the fish was exposed out of water as it neared the bird. The fish came very close to the bird and straight away jumped out of water in the direction of perching kingfisher but missed the target and landed on the sand bank.  The bird dashed off in a lightning speed. After the futile attempt, the fish jumped back into water, in contrast to Tejaswi’s guess that it would move like a snake. After sometime, a Little Egret Egretta garzetta arrived into the shallow part of the river water for foraging.  The hunter fish reappeared within few minutes and started moving towards the egret.  Sensing the danger, the egret moved fast to a safe distance.  The fish was circling in the water for prey.  Foraging egret continued walking along the river, with predator fish following it. Sensing danger, Egret left the foraging ground. 


Bulbuls & Drongos

Many snakes feed on eggs, chicks and adult birds. On some occasions, a group of birds attack the snake on prowl and successfully drive it out and save the clutch. Most of the time, Bulbuls give advance alarm and Drongos’ lead the attacking team.


BEHAVIOUR


Woodpecker

Woodpeckers comfortably climb a tree with the help of their toes and tail combination. Same combination hinders the movement while descending, moving on parallel branches and on ground, it looks like hopping.




ROOSTING



Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus

Trogons make nest in dead wood.  Some time they occupy smaller nests used by other birds. However the nests are modified to suit its size.


Barbet Megalaima spp

In difference to other forest birds, Barbets Megalaima spp roost at night in tree holes.


Munia Lonchura spp

White-throated, White-backed and Black-throated Munias Lonchura malabarica, Lonchura striata, Lonchura Malacca construct dormitories for family stay, using coarse grass in globular shape of the size of a football a height of 2 m in thick shrubs.  Rarely birds up to thirty, roost in these nests. 

                                                             


                                                                                                      
                                                                                                           Fig: White cheeked Barbet


THREATS


Never befriend wild animals

Usually all wild birds are afraid of human beings; our slightest movement against, drives them away. A Sandpiper (Actitis/Tringa spp?) used to be present on the riverbank where Tejaswi and his friends were fishing.  Once they offered a very tiny fish to the Sandpiper.  Astonishingly, after a few minutes of dilemma, overcoming its immense fear imbibed by the evolutionary intuition of not accepting offered food, the bird accepted the fish and ate it.  Over a period, it became an avid follower. It was so habituated that even an act of throwing, used to attract the sandpiper from far off distance.  At this stage, Tejaswi and his friends had a feeling that friendship might pose a danger to the bird if it approaches a stranger. They try to keep a distance but it was too late. Tragically, the Sandpiper met a sad end. It swallowed the fishing hook with a bite, assuming it as a morsel of food offered to it and died instantly in front of their eyes. A point was proven again that human friendship would always spell a doom to the wild creatures.  So, never befriend wild animals, it will definitely harm them.



Magpie Robins Copsychus saularis

Some time Magpie Robins Copsychus saularis build their nests in the crevice of tailed roof houses in Western Ghats. This leads to water leakage during rainy days. As a precautionary measure, people are destroying the nests in the initial stage.


Green Pigeon Treron spp

Dwindling population of Green Pigeon Treron spp could be attributed to disappearance of Ficus trees. Planting and nursing of these trees has come to standstill as there is no timber or economical value. Hence no one - neither villagers nor department is interested to propagate the Ficus trees.


Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia

Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia swallows fruits of Vateria indica (Dhoopa) larger than its head with the help of extendable gullet and gape.  It feeds on very few selected thurchi, ugani (kannada names of trees) fruits of moist and evergreen forests. Drastic reduction in their population is observed in the recent years due to absence of these fruiting trees in the forests and coffee plantations. These soft wooded trees have been selectively                                       Fig: Green Pigeon

cleared by forest department and plantation owners to augment the supplies to Plywood and Match factories.


Poultry disease

A dreaded disease that blinds the eyes first, wipes out the village poultry. And it also attacks wild birds.  Gradually swelling eyes of Magpie Robins Copsychus saularis deters foraging and the bird dies within a week.   A few Grey Jungle Fowls Gallus sonneratii were also found dead due to the disease.



PEST CONTROL

Woodpecker & Barbet

Woodpeckers & Barbets help in pest control and protect the trees. They make a nest hole in a dead tree but never in a living tree.  Clearing dead trees from forests and farms will be detrimental to these birds.


ECONOMICS


Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis

Increase in population of Spotted Doves Streptopelia chinensis could be attributed to decrease in hunting. Drastic increase in the bullet cost has brought down the intense of hunting small birds like Doves, after all its economics!




FOLK STORY


Woodpecker

A folk story on Woodpeckers - A folk story about woodpeckers goes like this; Once Lord Shiva was dancing to the beat of ‘damaruga’, his favorite typical drum. During the course, it fell and he requested the woodpecker to give background music to his dance.  Woodpecker obliged and dancing continued. After some time, it turned into a competition between Lard Shiva and woodpecker. Unable to dance to the tune of Woodpecker, Lord Shiva slipped and strained his leg, and desecrated the Woodpecker to continue drumming for ever.  So, we find them always drumming.


ON SALIM ALI

On the splendid work of Salim Ali, Tejaswi opines that finding new bird species other than listed by him in Indian sub-continent would be Hercules task.  Even in the present tech-savy scenario, with so many individuals interested in birds, NGOs and Government institutions, we are unable to update/recheck the birding status of area where Salim Ali had once conducted earliest surveys.




Reference and further reading:

  • http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-hornbill.html

  • Mudappa, D. 2000: Breeding biology of Malabar Grey Hornbill. JBNHS 97(1):15-24

  • Poornachandra Tejaswi, K. Parisarada kathegalu, 1991 (Nature stories); Kannada nadina hakkigalu, 1996 (Birds of Karnataka - part 1 & 2); Maya loka, 2006 (Magic world): Publishers - Pustaka prakashana, Mysore 570 009


Photo Acknowledgement:

  • Sri Kulashekara CS

  • Vismaya Pratishtana

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