Birds of Mysore Area
A comparison and comprehensive study
Isolated hills amid plains
MYSORE AREA BIRDS - is the outcome of intensive exploration of the area over three decades through well-planned field trips and analyzing & compiling the earlier reports since 1879. Different types of habitats spread over study area were examined during different seasons in addition to the locations previously visited by the seasoned eminent birders. Mysore area represents three southern districts of Karnataka state, namely Mysore, Mandya and Chamarajanagar. Biodiversity-rich forest reserves like Nagarhole and Bandipur National Parks; Nugu, Biligiri Rangaswamy, and Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuaries situated on the west- southeast boundary are excluded as their ecosystem is entirely different. Mandya and Chamarajanagar district were part of Mysore district till 1939 and 1997 respectively
Sanderson (1879) briefly made a remark on the avifauna of the Mysore area. Extensive Mysore Bird-survey conducted by Ali (Ali & Whistler, 1942-43) during one winter season (Nov 1939 to Feb 1940) spread over four months is very exhaustive, and the report is elaborate. Ali infers that other than the article of Phythian-Adams (1940 &1948), no literature is available extensively on birds from the present study area. Sanderson apparently deals a few memoirs (1879); Davison (1883), Betts (1929) and Buxton (1944) doesn't deal in detail. Phythian-Adams accounted species worth ‘game hunting’ elaborately in Mysore and Chamarajanagar districts. There exists a wide gap of 80 years after Ali’s study, particular to the present study area. Since the time of old Mysore region survey conducted by Salim Ali, a resurvey didn’t take place until Subramanya (2019) ventured into it. A Few individual bird reports associated with present study area are Karanth (1986), Thejaswi et al. (2000, 2000m), Misra et al. (2007), Guruprasad et al. (2007), Sapthagirish et al. (2015) and Shivaprakash et al.(2019).
Present effort enlists the bird species, status, and abundance of the three southern districts of Karnataka. Account of bird species encountered during our field trips, from published articles, internet based birding groups like ‘bngbirds,’ ‘eBird’ and ‘indianaturewatch,’ Aasheesh Pittie’s bibliography of South Asian Ornithology, ‘southasiaornith’ provided generous input references related to the present report.
The three districts studied- Mysore, Mandya & Chamarajanagar borders with biodiversity-rich Nagarhole and Bandipur National Parks; Nugu, Biligiri Rangaswamy, and Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuaries. These National Parks and Sanctuaries are well documented by Karnataka Forest Department, published regularly, and Davison (1883), Ali & Whistler (1942-1943), Zaveri et al. (1973, 1974), Gadgil & Sharatchandra (1974), Mahabal & Vasanth (2001), Rajkumar (2004).
Location and vegetation characteristics:
The location of study area lies between 11°30’and 13° 04’ North Latitude and 75° 45’ and 77°45’ East Longitude. Situated in southern Karnataka comprising Mysore, Mandya and Chamarajanagar districts spread over 16,916 Sq. Km with a population of 80 Lakh (2009). The study area is located in the southern Plateau of Peninsular India and is part of river Kaveri basin. An average elevation of the area is 820 m ASL, Bettadapura hill (1338 m), Narayana Durga (1088m) and Chamundi Hill (1074m) being highest peaks.
The climate is moderate. The summer season from March to the end of May, and then southwest monsoon season starts till the September end. October and November are retreating monsoon season. December to February is the dry season with the clear bright weather. The rainfall occurs from April to November and October is the wettest month. The area has the record of receiving on an average of 761.9 mm (Mysore & Chamarajanagar) and 691.2 mm (Mandya) rainfall during last century (Anon, 1988 & 2003).
Mysore area is an undulating table-land, fertile and well watered by perennial rivers whose waters dammed by anicuts (check dams built across rivers of different sizes) enrich their banks using canals. Mysore area situated in the angle where the Eastern and Western Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hills. The cultivated area includes rainfed, irrigated, plantations and hedges. Wetlands are present in the form of various sized Tanks (1757 nos), Anicuts (22nos; Madhvamanthri, Chunchanakatte, Mahadevapura, Chikkadevaraya, Chandagalu, and others), Reservoirs (Krishnaraja Sagara, Kabini Dam, Nugu, Markonahalli, Taraka, Gundal). Also, the rivers (Kaveri, Hemavathi, Kapila, Shimsha, Lakhmanathirtha, Suvarnavathi, Nugu, Lokapavani) are spread unevenly in the entire area.
The vegetation found here is thorn-scrub (Saldana 1984; Rao & Razi 1981) and non-forest habitat is due to prolonged disturbance of deciduous forest. Remnant Dry and moist deciduous trees scattered amid the stretches of shrub, herb and grass undergrowth is common. The remnant thorn-scrub protected areas are located in the middle of vast open and fallow land, cultivated land, town, and villages. Mysore area flora is quite wealthy and diverse with 1601 species of flowering plants belonging to 170 families and 778 genera (Rao & Razi 1981).
River Kaveri valley bordering Mandya district
Heronry in Tippur
The study was conducted during 1995-2022, using visual census techniques along the trails in varied vegetation covering water bodies, thorn-scrub, fallow lands, farm lands, garden, hedges along cultivated land and the mixed combination of above. Besides, authenticated sighting records and data published elsewhere, related to present study area is incorporated.
Visited following reserved forests regularly in addition to lesser known for avifaunal study. They are -Adichunchanagiri, Arabithittu, Halathi, Aloka palace, Arasanakatte, Baby betta, Bettadabeedu, Basavana betta, Chamundi Hill, Chikkanahalli, Hulimavu gudda, Kari ghatta, Konanur, Kottegala, Kunthi betta, Madahalli, Mallikarjunaswamy betta, Malleswara gudda, Melkote, Mullur gudda, Vadgal Ranganathaswamy betta, Parvathi betta, Hulikalmaradi betta, and Varakodu. Regularly visited around 220 Lakes & Tanks, 12 Anicuts, Krishnarajasagar & Kabini dams, Riverine locations during Midwinter waterfowl census and other times as well. Also, visited mono-cultured plantations, botanical Parks, gardens, fallow lands, farm lands, hedges, and zoological garden for the study. Repetitive visits were made to locations from least to rich diversity.
Different habitats were visited on all the seasons on an average 150 visits of 3 hours minimum, annually. Observations were made using binoculars, spotting scope, camera and call recording equipment. Birds identified with the help of Ali & Ripley (1987), Grimmett et al. (1998) and Kazmierczak (2000), Rasmussen (2012) and in some cases web groups - 'eBird', ‘bngbirds’ and 'oriental bird club'.
Spread sheet of Mysore Bird List is separately attached. Remarks includes brief notes, sightings dates, location and birders name.
Birding data of Mid-winter Waterfowl census ( Archive of Mysore Amateur Naturalists: 1989-2000), single day winter bird monitoring of every year (https://www.mysorenature.org/bird-monitoring-program/winter-bird-monitoring-program, uploaded from 2014 -19 but available from 1995), entire year birding activity ( https://www.mysorenature.org/mysore-birding-diary) and Mysore City Bird Atlas program: 2014-16) ( https://www.mysorenature.org/bird-monitoring-program/mysore-city-bird-atlas) are made use.
Results and discussion:
Documented 414 species from 22 order and belongs to 77 families. Totally documented 414 bird species including 189 Residents, 125 winter visitors, 55 Passage migrants, 9 Vagrants and 36 Historical. Thus, present study area accommodates 31% of 1349 species of Indian avifaunal diversity (Praveen & Jayapal 2022) and 76% of 548 species of Karnataka state diversity (Praveen et al. 2022). Excluding historical, lone sightings, and vagrants, it amounts to 26% of Indian diversity & 64% of Karnataka. The present report of 414 is inclusive of additional 86 species compared to 2010 report, due to increase in more birders participation, and extensive monitoring of birds on the arrival of ‘eBird’ platform to India. In the last one decade -lonely sightings and presence of vagrants have increased enormously probably due to extensive monitoring and global weather disturbances.
The species listed here are based purely on observation, photographs and literature. Since bird photography picked up in the last decade we relied more on observation. Utmost care is taken to confirm provenance of the photograph whenever reported. Few of the species sighted for the first time in India/ southern India. Many birders and photographers are not using ebird platform new to India; postings on different platforms and personnel communication are made use to enumerate the checklist.
Table 1: Status of Mysuru area birds
189 species of birds are listed as Residents as they reside and breed here (Common - 98; Uncommon -63; Rare -28; Lone sighting - Nil).
Endemic Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Thejaswi 2004i) recorded at Adichunchanagiri, Bettada beedu, Bettadapura, Bhimanakindi, Chamundi hill, Halathi Betta, Kote betta, Kunthi betta, and Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary. Its presence is not contiguous in all the chains of rocky hills. Unfortunately, Yellow-throated Bulbuls have disappeared from Chamundi hill within the study period. However, a small population of them is surviving in other locations. Endemic White-naped Tits Parus nuchalis have been recorded in Male Mahadeshwara Hills (Sadananda et al. 2010), range beyond the present report. However, there is a lone sighting record at Santhemaralli by Tiwari (1999), Chamarajanagar district.
Sighting records are very few for the following resident birds -Brown Crake Amaurornis akool, Blue-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus (Thejaswi 2002), Watercock Gallicrex cinerea, Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata, Red Spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea and Franklin’s/Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis. Recorded endemic Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata in the open fields near Chikkadevammana betta (Vishwanath, 2010) and at Melkote Wildlife Sanctuary (Shivaprakash 2012), limited to very specific area. Painted Spurfowl was elusive since its previous sighting from Gundlupete (Phythian-Adams 1940). Shaheen Falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinator is sporadically distributed in cliffs of rocky hills and reported from plains during foraging sorties. Inconsistently, recorded Yellow-throated Sparrows Gymnoris xanthocollis over the entire study area. Close relative of Spot-bellied Fantail Rhipidura albicollis - White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola has been reported from the border of adjoining sanctuaries BR Hills, Nagarhole, MM hills, & Bandipur but not from interior of Mysore area.
Breeding population of Malabar Lark Galerida malabarica in good numbers recorded in Saraguru, Beechana halli, Piriyapattana. Individuals have been sighted at Arasana Kere nearby Mysore city, too far from western ghat boundary. Marshall's Iora Aegithina nigolutea was recorded at Konanur Scrub Jungle, Nanjanagudu Taluk (Shivaprakash 2010), later in Hulimavu Scrub Jungle, Nanjanagudu Taluk (26/2/2011) and K Hemmanalli. The resident population of Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus is reported from here as early as 1929 (Betts 1929). However, their population increases marginally during Monsoon. Brown Hawk-owl Ninon scutulata recorded for the first time in Kukkarahalli woods during 19/10/1996 to 14/12/1997. Re-sighted again on 14/11/2004 & 11/1/2011 and stayed over a week in the same location. Now it has been recorded in Kukkarahalli woods & Yennehole Valley regularly.
A pair of Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata has been observed nesting (Shivaprakash 2005, Shivaprakash et al. 2006) for 16 seasons in Mysore outskirts. It seems the pair relocated its breeding location due to destruction of habitat in 2015 and could not be traced for next 5 years. A nesting site was found just 2 Km from the abandoned one in 2020 and it raised a chick successfully but it is not known the breeding pair is the same or some other. The success rate of breeding is 87%. The pair raised single fledgling in each brood except in 2010 with two. A Totally three pairs are breeding in the study area. Nesting of Bonelli’s Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus at four different locations and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax at five locations is observed. All the above eagle-breeding locations are well separated from each other. There are regular sightings of adult and juvenile Crested Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus in Melkote Wildlife Sanctuary. Hawk-Eagle is sighted irregularly at Yennehole valley, Chamundi RF, and Malleswara Gudda RF.
Indian White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis and Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus have disappeared from the region, hence sightings are considered as historical . There are very few flock sightings of Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. They were sighted near Chamundi Hill (66 nos in Nov 2014, waste dump), a dump of dead chickens near poultry farms on the outskirts of Mysore city (9 nos in Oct 2013) and at open grasslands of Kenchana kere, Hunsuru (11 nos in Nov 2014). At garbage & dead chicken dump these birds forages whereas in Kenchana kere just idling/basking in the sun. Emerging threat at Mysore City for these birds have been reported (Samson et al. 2014).
Finding Quails is tough and identification still difficult. The presence of Common Button-Quail Turnix suscitator & Jungle Bush-Quail Perdicula asiatica has been confirmed from photographs (Raju 2008, Das 2007 & personal album of Michaelsen T) initially, later by many photographers. A male Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica has shown up in the grassland during summer (Ravishankar, 2012). In subsequent years it has been recorded by its call especially in rainy season and photographed.
On the rocky outcrops in perennial rivers - Cauvery & Kapila, Great Thick-knee Esacus recurvirostris are usually common. However, they are absent in river Shimsha. Probably the rocky platforms are not safe here, as the river gets dried up beyond rainy season thus exposing to danger. Breeding of Small Pratincole Glareola lacteal at Talkad (Worth 1951, quoting Phythian-Adams) is no more, due to hectic human activity. However, in the least disturbed locations like Rayasamudra (Mandya Dt), KRS backwaters (Mysore –Mandya Dt), and Muthurayanakere (bordering Tumkur Dt) breeding is recorded. Recorded a large congregation of 1300+ Small Pratincoles on exposed mud-bar at KRS backwaters on 02/01/2011 provides a clue that breeding is taking place in the vicinity.
Knob-billed / Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos have been sighted only thrice during non-winter in flight. The presence of Comb Ducks has been recorded as early as 1942 by Stoney (1942) & Phythian (1943). Attempts were made to find their possible nesting location at KRS Backwaters and Yelandur sector tanks did not yield any positive result. The Kallur tank on 21/02/2010 hosted the single largest congregation of 91 Comb Ducks.
During non-winter, population wise birds considered as pests - Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri and Rock Pigeon Columba livia dominates the region with Common Myna Acridotheres tristis, House Crow Corvus splendens, and Black Kite Milvus migrans following the list. However, in winter, the arrival of migratory Eastern Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis & Common Coot Fulica atra mixed with local population dominates all the resident species, and Common Myna Acridotheres tristis, Rock Pigeon Columba livia, and Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus are next in line.
All the three species of Bushlarks -Jerdon's Mirafra affinis, Indian M. erythroptera & Singing M. cantillans, have been registered at 3-4 locations in Mysore City suburbs and one particular place is photographically documented by Mike (2010). The habitat is pebbled semi-arid larger grass land dotted with shrubs. A study on how these three Bushlarks are sharing a common habitat would be an exciting and challenging.
For the past 4-5 centuries, Spot-billed Pelicans Pelecanus philippensis and Painted Storks Mycteria leucocephala are breeding in Kokkarebellur village (Neginhal 1977 & 1997; Manu & Sara 2000; Kannan V & Ranjit Manakadan 2005). After 1990’s, increased safety and food availability drove Pelicans to breed in Karanji and Kukkarahalli tanks (Neginhal 1997), there was an attempt to breed in Lingambudhi in 2000; Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary started hosting breeding Pelicans from December 2009 onwards. Earlier to that, Pelicans were not breeding in Ranganathittu. So are Painted Storks, they started breeding here since 1994. Gray Herons Ardea cinerea also started breeding here since 1994. Decline in breeding population of Kokkarebellur & Karanji is conspicuous and seems to have direct relation with establishment of pelicanary in Ranganathittu. The disappearance of trees supporting Pelicans’ breeding due to embankment dilution in constructed islands of Karanji tank kept away the colony from 2011-2012. Lingambudhi tank used to attract a large number of Pelicans for foraging. In April 2002, an average of 443 birds was found feeding in the tank for four weeks continuously. On 13/4/2002 their strength reached the all-time high of 522. Though numerous lakes exist on paper in Mysore area, Pelicans have chosen only 132 water-bodies for foraging with regulars like Shettihalli, Sule kere, Koppa, Karanji (Kishendas 2007), Kenchanakere, Bilikere (Rama 1996), Markonahalli, others. In 1975 Forest Department in co-ordination with Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru and Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai collared 96 different breeding birds in Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary. However there is no collar recovery reported yet.
The congregation of Streak-throated Swallows Hirundo fluvicola is very common near bridges across River Cauvery, Kapila, Laxmanathirtha, Shimsha and irrigation canals where they build colonial nests. In the last 3 – 4 years (past 2015) it is observed that these swallows have extended their foraging ground in most of the marshy habitat, sharing with resident Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii, Red-rumped Swallows Hirundo daurica and common winter migrant Common Swallow Hirundo rustica.
In immediate surroundings of Mysore region, photographically recorded Brown-headed barbets Megalaima zeylanica presence thrice Though doubtful sightings of this bird exist for Mysore region, is not included in the checklist in the absence of photographs.
Winter population of few species adds up with resident species increasing their strength many folds. Those are Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus, Black Drongo Edolius macrocercus, Bay-backed Shrike Lanius vittatus, Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis, Little Egret Egretta garzetta, Grey Heron Ardea cinerea, Little-ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, Common Coot Fulica atra, Indian Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha, Cotton Teal Nettapus coromandelianus, and Black winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus.
Solitary Greylag amidst Bar-headed geese
Yellow-legged Button quail by Michaelsen T
Rufous bellied Eagle by Das S
Long billed Pipit Vishwanath MK
Greater Flamingo by Syed Muzamil
Nilgiri Woodpigeon by Kiran Bagade
Gadwall by Sahana M
Albino Lesser Whistling DUck by Anagha S
List of regular winter visitors is impressive with 125 species (Common -33; Uncommon -42; Rare -45; Lone sightings -5). Mysore area being part of central-Asian Flyway hosts many migratory birds in large numbers. Mid-winter waterfowl census conducted by few individuals and an NGO, Mysore Amateur Naturalists since 1987 proved the presence of many migratory species in large numbers. Arriving in large numbers is a history now. In addition to the birds and habitats data, census generated a new breed of birders as it acts as a capacity building exercise.
Migratory birds fly vast distances in north – south axis from arctic and temperate regions where they reproduce to foraging sites in temperate and tropical areas, twice a year. Indian sub-continent lies within Central Asian Flyway, one among eight well-established migratory birds’ flyways and is shortest of all. This flyway happens to be within the Northern Hemisphere. Highest altitude flier Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus has been recorded successfully flying over the formidable Himalayan barrier (8km height x 200km north to south stretches). Other migrants take east or west edges of this hurdle to enter Indian sub-continent. Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola and Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola arrive from West Palaearctic from the western boundary of the Himalayan barrier. Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva travels vast distances as far west as southern Sweden and Austria to winter in the Indian subcontinent. Many of the wader species, including the Curlew Sandpiper Erolia ferruginea and Little Stint Calidris minuta, seems to follow a loop migration, entering India through the north and northwest during early winter, before moving southeast to the east coast of India (Balachandran, 2006). After winter they move to north along the eastern seaboard. More than 300 species use the Central Asian Flyway. These include several species that undertake regular, seasonal movements within the Indian subcontinent. Among these are the Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura, and Pied Thrush Geokichla wardii all of which breed central India and Himalayan foothills respectively and winter in southern India and Sri Lanka (Birdlife factsheet, 2008).
Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, once a rare winter visitor to the southern peninsula is a common winter visitor (Thejaswi 2004c). The congregation of Rosy Starlings Pastor roseus fluctuates depending on the success of monsoon in northern India (Thejaswi 2001); failure of monsoon in the north of India drives the huge flock of starlings to Deccan peninsula. Sykes's Short-toed Lark Calandrella dukhunensis, Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps, Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala and Common Rosefinches Erythrina erythrina features in ripening and harvested paddy fields and these moves from place to place depending on harvesting activity. However, their appearance is quite uncommon. Local birds like Indian Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus, Streaked Weavers Ploceus manyar compete with them in moderate flocks.
At Mandakalli grassland, once a large congregation of Harriers was observed (Thejaswi 2004k) in 2001. Three minor Harrier roosts' involving Pallid Circus macrourus and Montagu's Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Circus aeruginosus, and Pied C. melanoleucos have been recorded (Thejaswi 2004d) at Mandakalli grassland, Yedathore, and Yelandur. Now, a new airport is in place at Mandakalli where once the large expanse of grassland and its avifauna existed.
Over the years few winter-resident & winter migratory birds breeding is being recorded. And some, over-stayed to establish a local population:
One pair of Indian Reed-warbler Acrocephalus [stentoreus] brunnescens, unsuccessfully attempted to breed in the reeds of Lingambudhi kere a decade and half back. Now, are successfully breeding in more than eight lakes; few decades’ back they were uncommon & sparse, winter visitors for most of the Mysore Area.
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus, one of the last migrants to leave Mysore by 11th April (1931) is now found breeding in more than a dozen locations.
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus & Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrid were not listed in Salim Ali’s survey (1939-40). Now found sparsely throughout the year. Whiskered Terns in breeding plumage have been recorded from river beds and larger water bodies beyond winter season, probably breeding.
A common winter migrant Booted Warbler Iduna caligata fledgling observed, confirmed breeding in the winter quarters. A bird with tongue marks; the mark are only visible for a period of 2 – 3 months, so bird must have fledged in the locality, where the parents are wintering. (Michaelsen T).
Common winter migrant, Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea: completely unexpected, probability breeding took place nearby, helpless and begging for food in the first week of October. (Michaelsen T).
Rare Passage migrant (observed during breeding only) -Little Tern Sternula albifrons ( Mamta S, 2017 & BC Gururaj 2018).
Common Winter migrant Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines incubation recorded (Ravishankar GS from Kabini backwaters, Kalpalatha Rajan & Vijayalaxmi Rao from Kalale).
Found presence of Common Coot Fulica atra and Cotton Teal Nettapus coromandelianus in more numbers of water-bodies compared to 1995. [Cotton Teal were found in 15 pairs in July, great majority must be migrant–Phythian-Adams (1931). Coots residents, but may partly be a winter visitor –Salim Ali (1939-40).
Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus collared in Mongolia provides substantial evidence of migration of many waterfowl species from Mongolia to India (Madhukar et al. 2009). These Geese have been recorded in many tanks every winter (Shivaprakash 2005); in a single flock contained as many as 3690 Geese (Feb 2018). So far 45 Collared Geese have been sighted in Mysore region among them three are unclear (Refer, Table 2). First collared one (E6) was sighted by Niranjan M in Kaggalipura Kere in Dec 2007. THREE birds have been re-sighted on THREE different years (Refer, Table 2); NINE have been re-sighted on TWO different years – and rest arrived once. These are collared in Provinces of Central & Northern Mongolia, initially by Martin Gilbert , later N. Tseveenmyadag and team.
Interestingly Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea and Brown-headed Gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus that are recorded in Mysore Area, has summer distribution in Indian limit at Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir but in small numbers. To understand these birds' summer habitat, distribution, breeding and the foraging activity, a short survey was carried out in the Ladakh region where they, sparsely distributed and consistently breed (Ali & Repley 1987). Known breeding and foraging grounds were visited during the study for two weeks in July 2016 (Shivaprakash et al. 2016) .
Congregation of 250 and odd European Bee-eaters Merops apiaster is reported by Subramanya (2012) near Kollegal. Sporadic sighting of Lesser Adjutant-Stork Leptoptilos javanicus is reported from Kabini backwaters and Uttara Kannada district within the state boundary during winter in recent years.
Solitary Greylag Goose Anser anser has been sighted five times amid the flock of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus, possibly arrived along with the Bar-headed flock from the nesting ground. These were not reported by Phythian-Adams (1948).
Population wise migratory Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica, Rosy Starling Pastor roseus, Garganey Querquedula querquedula, Northern Shoveller Spatula clypeata, and Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus dominate the region in winter days.
Through out the year Osprey Pandion haliaetus has been observed in inland lakes and Kabini Reservoir. Probably immature ones found throughout the year in inland lakes, and Kabini reservoir. Its known that young ospreys don't return to breeding ground for the first three or so summers. However, once their hormones directs, when they are old enough begin their return journey to breeding sites. (Scottish Wildlife Trust) .
Probably same would be case for migrants like Garganey Querquedula querquedula, Northern Shoveller Spatula clypeata, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Booted Warbler Iduna caligata, Sykes’s Warbler Iduna rama, and Western Reef-heron Egretta gularis that were recorded in the months of May and June. Congregation (150+) of Black-tailed Godwits was observed in the month of May. Few individuals- Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ruff Philomachus pugnax & Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva were recorded in the month of August in the neighboring Tumkur Dt.
Table 2: Collared Bar-headed Goose sighting details
Table 3: Collared Bar-headed Goose re-sighting details
The list contains 55 Passage migrants (Common -1, Uncommon-12, Rare -29 and Lone sightings - 13).
Non-resident foragers involved in seasonal local movement (both summer and winter) mostly originating from Coastal, Eastern & Western Ghats. Mysore region is saddled within hill ranges of Western Ghat, Eastern Ghat and confluence of these two hill complexes, spread on three sides with unique habitat and bird diversity. Thus found more Passage migrants from close by these rich habitats. The reason could be monsoon driven, or to utilize varied range of food that is not found in their habitat, or imbibed foraging practice since ages travelling from western to eastern ghats or vice versa, which we started observed in recent years.
In addition, few long distance migrants - Amur Falcon Falco amurensis, and Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata arrives from far beyond the Indian limit halt couple of days to refuel and further move southward or southwest.
Indian Golden Oriole Oriolus kundoo , Red collared Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica, Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor and Little Tern Sternula albifrons have breeding population within Karnataka, India and beyond. but not in study area. Greater Flamingo Phoeniconaias roseus is involved in loop migration that has breeding population in western India.
Western Reef-Heron Egretta gularis and White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster arrives from nearest western coast where breeding population exists.
Some species of Western Ghat residing birds including the endemics visits study area. They are -Indian Hanging-Parrots Loriculus vernalis, Indian Swiftlet Aerodramus unicolor, Indian White rumped Spinetail/Needletail Zoonavena sylvatica, Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba, Brown-throated Needletail Hirundapus giganteus, Black-hooded/headed Oriole Oriolus xanthornus, Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus, Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis , Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Nilgiri Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor, Small Sunbird Leptocoma minima, Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus, Malabar Starling Sturnia blythiiCrested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus, Common Buzzard Buteo Buteo, Rufous-bellied Eagle Lophotriorchis kienerii, Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii , Gray fronted Green-Pigeon Treron affinis, Blyth's / Swift Apus leuconyx, Southern Hill Myna Gracula indica. Phythian-Adams (1943) & Frend (1947) reported Green Pigeons visiting the swamps in hot weather.
Movement of Western and Eastern Ghat birds are mostly observed in and around hillocks like Giribetta, Chamundi betta, Bettadabeedu, Malleswara Gudda, Chikkadevammana betta, Vadgal, Bettadapura betta, Narayanadurga, Karikal betta, Kari ghatta during monsoon and post-monsoon. Incidentally, these hillocks are situated 5-50 Km away from the Western - Eastern Ghat fringes.
Some species of Western - Eastern Ghat residing birds are visiting study area. They are - Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis, Indian Hanging-Parrot Loriculus vernalis, Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica, Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Sumiculus dicruroides, Crested TreeSwift Hemiprocne coronata, Brown-capped Woodpecker Yungipicus nanus, Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Leiopicus mahrattensis, Streak-throated Woodpecker Picus xanthopygaeus, Large Cuckooshrike Coracina macei, Orange-headed Thrush Geokichla citrina, Brown-cheeked Fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala, Indian Blackbird Turdus similimus, Loten's Sunbird Cinnyris lotenius, Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus, Green Imperial-Pigeon Ducula aenea, Orange-breasted Green-Pigeon Treron bicinctus , Banded Bay Cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii, Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus, Forest / Spot-bellied Eagle-owl Bubo/Ketupa nipalensis, Square-tailed Black Bulbul Hypsipetes ganeesa, and White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus,
Local movement is yet again proved with the arrival of Blue-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni, Lesser Yellownape Picus chlorolophus, White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus, Square-tailed Black Bulbul Hypsipetes ganeesa and Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Sumiculus dicruroides in 2020.
Nine (9) species chanced upon once, recorded beyond its known ranges are listed here. The table provides observation detail. Among these, Seven species are long distance migrants from Himalaya & beyond and two are known from Indian limits.
Greater Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius, a species not recorded in India but might have arrived along with summer migrants Pied Cuckoo. Reasonably identifiable photograph of bird affirms the visit.
European Starling Sterna vulgaris in Kukkarahalli along with other winter migrants and local birds. The other confirmed record is from neighboring Bengaluru (Ghorpade 1974).
In addition to above two - Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus Black-eared Kite Milvus lineatus, Steppe Gull Larus barabensis, Chestnut-winged Cuckoo Clamator coromandus, and Common Quail Coturnix conturnis have appeared once.
Photographic evidences exists for two vagrants, and these are found in Western Indian Limit during summer- Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspie , and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus .
Red-throated Pipit by Harsha NR
Orange breasted Green pigeon by Chandra SG
Crimson backed sunbird by Abhijith APC
Sulphur bellied Warbler by Kashyap R
Canary Flycatcher by Swetha B
Yellow throated Bulbul Yogendra HS
White stork by Vijayalaxmi Rao
Spotted Flycatcher by Kashyap R
Historical and Conspicuously absent:
These 36 species resident, migratory and vagrant were observed till 2012 and have not been re-sighted thereon. The table provides observation detail.
Forest stretches that were contiguous and healthy have disappeared or drastically reduced driving White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicusand Puff-throated Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps to restrict their movement within the available suitable habitat.
Similarly, very vast grasslands disappeared to support growing human population causing Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica to Extinct and Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus to disappear.
Fulvous Whistling-duck Dendrocygna bicolor, Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala, Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris, Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni, and Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus are rare winter visitors to southern India, rendezvous of bird and birder might not have taken place or habitat degradation might have compelled them not to venture in to Mysore region. Surprisingly four-time visitor Tufted Pochard Aythya fuligula is absent and this calls for further investigation, what causes their movement restricted mostly to central India.
Wind blown OR route confused birds from far off distances OR along with breeding fraternity OR escapee from pet traders- Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus, Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor, Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca, Spotted Crake Porzana porzana, Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus, Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Sanderling Ereunetes albus, Red necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Pallas's Gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus, Large Hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides, Thick billed Green-Pigeon Treron curvirostra, Black capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata, Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata, Lesser Frigatebird Fregata ariel, Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons, Black Tern Chlidonias niger, Grey Bushchat Rhodophila ferrea, Rusty-rumped Warbler Locustella certhiola, Tickells Thrush Turdus unicolor, Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum. Few photographic records of Rusty rumped Warbler Locustella certhiola from Eranaculam, Kerala and Kancheepuram, Tamilnadu exists in southern India.
And similarly birds from nearby habitats that were sighted just once -westernghat endemic Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis, and Yellow-browed Bulbul Acritillas indica have not been sighted again.
Roosting and behavioral observation:
Gadgil and Ali (1975) reported 59 species of common Indian birds involved in forming communal roosts. 21 species Participation of 21 species in communal roost has been recorded here (Shivaprakash 2001). In winter, Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, Blue-tailed Merops philippinus, and Small Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis spend nights in a flock under thick vegetation of Lingambudhi tank.
Development of Jungle Crow’s intelligence is recorded by Deapesh (2006). Documented few individual behavioral and foraging observations on Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus (Thejaswi 2001 & 2002), Crakes Porzana spp (Thejaswai 2002), Baya Weaver bird Ploceus philippinus & Rosy Starlings Sturnus roseus (Shivanand & Kumar 2004a & 2004b), Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus (Shivaprakash 2002). Moreover, Chakravarthy (2004) reported a breakaway heronry forced to breed and roost in small colonies depending on the advancement of monsoon. Albino Common Swallow Hirundo rustica was recorded in Giribettada kere (Shivaprakash et al. 2006); albino Tricolored Munia in Daithana Katte on 12/2017 by Sahana M & Swetha B; Common Coot in Leucistic form reported from Piriyapattana sector by Swetha B & team in December 2017 and albino Lesser Whistling Duck by Anagha S & team in Kannali on 13/1/2019. In the middle of human habitat at Devalapura, Tippur, Kommeralli, Thonnur junction and at tank margin in Markalu, Kaggalipura, Kesthur & Hadinaru, Heronries exists. These are in addition to well-known IBAs like Ranganathittu, Kokkare Bellur, Karanji, and Kukkarahalli.
More productive bird locations:
Identified 41 sites as Important Bird Areas (Islam & Rahmani 2005 & 16) in Karnataka, based on conservation priority. Mysore area hosts twelve among them. Kukkarahalli, Lingambudhi, Karanji, Narasambudhi, Arabithittu Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) are in Mysore District. Sulekere, Adi-chunchanagiri, Melkote WLS, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary (BS) & Kokkare Bellur BS are in Mandya District. Kunthur-Kallur is in Chamarajanagar District. One IBA, Krishnaraja Sagar Reservoir is spread in both the two districts, Mysore & Mandya. Considered following IBAs as potential Ramsar sites (Islam & Rahmani 2008) -Ranganathittu, Sulekere lake, Krishnaraja Sagar Reservoir, Kokkare Bellur, Karanji, Kukkarahalli Tank, Lingambudhi Lake, Narasambudhi & Kunthur-Kallur.
Constituted Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary (1940), clubbing the large islands of Devaraja, Ranganathittu, and Gandehosahalli, as well as some smaller islands in the Cauvery River. Salim Ali influenced the Mysore rulers to establish Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary at Palahally islands near Srirangapattana after successful Mysore State Bird Survey (1939-40). Spillett (1968), Neginhal (1980, 1982, 1993), Subramanya et al. (1991), and Thejaswi (2000) have well illustrated the activity and status of the Sanctuary. Resident Grey-headed Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus and Lesser Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis has been recorded here and also on river stretches with lofty trees on shores (Vinay 2008 & Das 2008). Pelagic specialist, Lesser Frigate Bird Fregata arie was reported here once (Huilgol 2007).
Karnataka state has 38 out of 79 bird species endemic to India (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2012). The present report contains 12 endemics in Mysore region. Among them, nine are residents -Rock Bush-quail Perdicula argoondah, Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata, Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Mottled Wood-owl Strix ocellata, White-cheeked Barbet Megalaima viridis, Malabar Lark Galerida malabarica, Sykes’s Lark Galerida deva, Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus, White-naped Tit Parus nuchali. Four are passage migrants among which last three are western ghat endemics -Grey-fronted Green- Pigeon Treron affinis, Nilgiri Wood-pigeon Columba elphinstonii , Nilgiri Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor & Small Sunbird Leptocoma minima and one winter migrant -Malabar Whistling-thrush Myiophonus horsfieldii. Two endemic species out of 12 recorded in Mysore region - Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus and White-naped Tit Parus nuchali are considered Vulnerable since facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
Overall 12 species recorded in Mysore region are considered threatened out of 82 threatened birds in India (BirdLife International, 2015). In the first category, the highest order of threat - Critically Endangered, 3 out of 16 listed in India are resident Vultures: White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian Vulture Gyps indicus, and Red-headed Vulture Aegypius calvus. In the second order of threat - Endangered, 2 out of 16 listed in India are Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus and Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda, both residents. 7 out of 50 listed in India under category- Vulnerable. Among them, two are restricted-range endemics (Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus and disjunct species White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis). Two Spotted Eagles (one is resident, Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata and the other regular winter migrant, Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga). Moreover, two have been recorded just once -Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus, Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca and twice Bristled Grassbird Chaetornis striatus. The prime cause of vulture population eradication is veterinary drug diclofenac’s effect and non-availability of the carcass. Drastic change in crop pattern, people living standard; fragmentation, degradation and loss of habitat; and pollution are the primary reasons for the decline of other bird species. Birds with unique habitat preferences and on the fringes of their geographical distribution have been noted to be particularly susceptible to extinction. In the present case, susceptible are -two restricted-range endemics Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus and White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis which are under severe threat.
Comparison with Salim Ali’s observations:
Erstwhile Mysore State bird survey was conducted during 06/11/1939 - 25/2/1940 by Ali & Whistler (1942-43). Present study region was part of the investigation during 15/11/1939 – 18/12/1939. During the survey, Ali & Whistler recorded 223 species from 11 locations that spread over three districts of Mysore area (present study area). Birds recorded were grouped as common/uncommon/regular depending on their presence. Ali totally recorded, 346 species from 62 locations from entire erstwhile Mysore State covering evergreen, moist & deciduous biotope. The reason for observation of more bird species- the current record of 414 against 223 species of the 1940s – is best explained by Ali’s quote (Vol.43, page 131) ‘the studies over an extended period covering all the seasons would yield fuller information than the one short seasonal survey.'
Present study proved White Ibises density is more compared to Black Ibises, this is in contraction to the report of Salim Ali’s observations, may be due to change in land use pattern, irrigation succeeding rain-dependent agriculture. The absence of White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis in Mysore State bird survey is conspicuous; which is now a common bird. It is still true that most of the time winter migrants, Garganeys Querquedula querquedula are always out-numbered Northern Pintail Anas acuta and Cotton Teals Nettapus coromandelianus. The statement like ‘not able to identify the Wooly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus breeding locations’, is now resolved by Vijayalaxmi Rao (2010) recording successful breeding over the years from Nanjanagudu. In Mandya districts these Storks have been recorded in good numbers in all seasons and so there is all possibility of breeding taking place.
Related to Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, an erroneous ‘Nelamangalam’ (near Bangalore) has appeared instead of Nagamangala in the paper described as, ‘One was shot by Mr. Van Ingen near Nelamangalam (40 miles distant from Mysore City) in early January 1940. The male Bustard collected by Van Ingen is now displayed at Regional Museum of Natural History, Mysore.
Comparison with Phythian-Adams observations:
Sanderson (1879) stationed at Hunsur, Mysore district described the then avifauna as “Junglefowl, Peafowl & Spurfowl are common in the woods; Bustard, Florican, Red-legged Partridge, Quail and Rock-grouse in the open country; Wild duck, teal, Snipe, Wild Geese, Flamingos, Pelicans, and Crakes in the lake and rice fields. Doves of several varieties are common both in the woods and open country”. Above statement seems to be much-generalized one since the book deals mammals primarily. There are very few sightings of Indian Courser Cursorius coromandelicus -at Hirikere by Siddaramaiah & Jayadeva (1992), incubation reported by Ravishankar and Sashidhara in 2013 & 2016 respectively, and later sightings by other birders from only two specific locality . Great Indian Bustard and Lesser Florican did not reoccur. However, Rajesh reported a Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (2016) from an undisclosed location, and later sightings by other birders from only two specific locality. Greater Flamingos were reported just once from Bannur by Syed Muzamil (2016).
Rayment reported breeding of Spot bill Ducks Anas poecilorhyncha in Mysore as early as 1893. It is interesting to note some observations of Anderson (1883) on Mysore State birds (as these notes are of general in nature meant for entire old mysore region, specifically not compared):
Grey Quail (Common Quail Coturnix coturnix)- there are fewer in Mysore than in any part of India.
Rain Quail (Coturnix coromandelica) remains all the year round in Mysore.
Florican (Lesser Florican Sypheotides indicus)- shot them in different part of Mysore in every month of the year.
Painted Partridge (Painted Francolin Francolinus pictus) –shot them in grasslands along the edge of the jungle in north-western Mysore
Phythian-Adam’s (1940) observations made during 1925 to 1939, within a radius of 40 miles from the Mysore covering all the tanks and ground is considered more appropriate to compare with data generated. Mentioned as uncommon and strictly local, the Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus is now not seen and the Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus is recorded at only two locations. Only once recorded Great Bittern Bataurus stellaris and Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica is also not sighted in recent years. There are just three sightings from two locations of Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata, since then. Tufted Pochard Aythya fuligla, Swinhoe’s Snipe Gallinago megala are altogether missing now. “The congregation of Demoiselle Cranes Grus virgo in thousands at Kapila river near Nanjanagudu, Yelandur Tanks, and at the confluence of River Kapila, Cauvery at T.Narasipura was a common feature during winter; and were flying over Mysore City regularly” is a mirage now. In recent years few individual Demoiselle Cranes were recorded thrice at Maddur kere (Yelandur), Kallur (2014) and KRS backwaters (Shivaprakash 2002a). Sighting record of Large Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor is just once and solitary Gadwall Anas strepera (Buxton 1944) is being recorded every year after 2016.
To save Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigricepsin, a rare bird in all parts of its habitat at that period, from extinction Phythian-Adams suggested vehemently for complete protection both from professional snares and sportsmen after three rendezvous with Bustards. Stoney (1942) has also reported a sighting of Bustard from Gundlupet on 30/11/1941. After over half a century, Karanth (1986) mentioned Yediyur & Bukkapatna (Tumkur), Jakkanahlli-Nagamangala (Mandya) and Dasanakoppal (Mysore) as probable Bustard habitats. In the beginning of 1987, a trapper approached Mysore Zoo with a male Great Indian Bustard that was used to pair with a female in Zoo for breeding but didn’t succeed (Krishnegowda 1987). The source of Bustard is said to be from Yediyur region, Tumkur Dt. These presumed Bustard habitats mentioned by Phythian-Adams (1940) & Karanth (1986) were investigated thoroughly for remnants. Over and above, surveyed in detail the suggested locations and potential habitats like Markonahalli – Yediyur (Tumkur Dt), Melkote-Nagamangala-Halathi-Nalgunda-Tattahalli (Mandya Dt) expanses, and Santhemaralli-Kavalande (Chamarajanagar & Mysore Dt), Vadgal plains (Mysore Dt) and Grasslands all around the Mysore City, but in vain.
Approximately 48% of extant bird species worldwide (5,245) are known or suspected to be undergoing population declines, compared with 39% (4,295) with stable trends, 6% (676) showing increasing populations trends, and 7% (778) with unknown trends (Alexander et al. 2022). Unprecedented loss of biodiversity caused by rapid deforestation, exploitation of natural resources all over the world is well known. Situation is not different here. Thus, current situation demands more close and careful evaluation of this habitat. Long-term monitoring of bird populations is essential since many species are declining in numbers and some are showing up suddenly, so such data would be useful for monitoring, understanding and possible protection, and conservation. There is emerging evidence in the abundance of common bird species globally .
Content of this article is continuation of work initiated by an NGO, Mysore Amateur Naturalists led by Manu K & P Guruprasad P. I am very grateful to Sadananda KB (late), Guruprasad P, Vijayalaxmi Rao, Thejaswi S, Sampathkumar K, Sheshgiri BR, Deapesh Misra, Girija T, Mohan Kumar M, Kishen Das KR, Tanuja DH, and Sahana M for invaluable assistance during field visits. Moreover, to Michaelsen T for providing valuable first-hand information and sighting records especially on Cuckoos, Warblers, and Larks. Younger birders since 2012 are instrumental in enumerating the checklist. I owe them my gratitude. All contributors are listed and acknowledged at the end of checklist. I am also most grateful to Kulashekar CS, Vishwanath MK, Das S, Vinay S, Ravinarayan CS, Ajit Huilgol, Raju Ak, Sadath Ali, Abhijith APC, Ravishankar GS, Dr. Shivanandappa for their photographic documentation. Special thanks to Manu K & Guruprasad P of Mysore Amateur Naturalists, Pravin of Zoo Print's Journal, Praveen J, the web groups- bngbirds, southasiaornith, India nature watch and eBird whose input enriched the present report. Vijayalaxmi Rao, Sheshgiri BR & Thejaswi S made useful comments and provided enormous input for which I am most grateful.
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